Lecture 22 Network Layer (Broadcast and Multicast)

Publish in

Documents

29 views

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 24
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
University of Nevada – Reno Computer Science & Engineering Department Fall 2011 CPE 400 / 600 Computer Communication Networks. Lecture 22 Network Layer (Broadcast and Multicast). slides are modified from J. Kurose & K. Ross. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks
Transcript
University of Nevada – Reno Computer Science & Engineering Department Fall 2011 CPE 400 / 600Computer Communication Networks Lecture 22 Network Layer (Broadcast and Multicast) slides are modified from J. Kurose & K. Ross Introduction 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer duplicate creation/transmission duplicate duplicate in-network duplication sourceduplication R4 R2 R4 R2 R3 R3 R1 R1 Broadcast Routing
  • deliver packets from source to all other nodes
  • source duplication is inefficient:
  • source duplication: how does source determine recipient addresses?
  • Network Layer In-network duplication
  • flooding: when node receives brdcst pckt, sends copy to all neighbors
  • Problems: cycles & broadcast storm
  • controlled flooding: node only brdcsts pkt if it hasn’t brdcst same packet before
  • Node keeps track of pckt ids already brdcsted
  • Or reverse path forwarding (RPF): only forward pckt if it arrived on shortest path between node and source
  • spanning tree
  • No redundant packets received by any node
  • Network Layer (b) Broadcast initiated at D (a) Broadcast initiated at A A A D D G G B B E E F F c c Spanning Tree
  • First construct a spanning tree
  • Nodes forward copies only along spanning tree
  • Network Layer A A D D G G B E B E F F c c Spanning Tree: Creation
  • Center node
  • Each node sends unicast join message to center node
  • Message forwarded until it arrives at a node already belonging to spanning tree
  • 3 4 2 5 1
  • Stepwise construction of spanning tree
  • (b) Constructed spanning tree Network Layer Source-based trees Multicast Routing: Problem Statement
  • Goal: find a tree (or trees) connecting routers having local mcast group members
  • tree: not all paths between routers used
  • source-based: different tree from each sender to rcvrs
  • shared-tree: same tree used by all group members
  • Shared tree Approaches for building mcast trees Approaches:
  • source-based tree: one tree per source
  • shortest path trees
  • reverse path forwarding
  • group-shared tree: group uses one tree
  • minimal spanning (Steiner)
  • center-based trees
  • …we first look at basic approaches, then specific protocols adopting these approaches 1 i 5 4 3 6 2 Shortest Path Tree
  • mcast forwarding tree: tree of shortest path routes from source to all receivers
  • Dijkstra’s algorithm
  • S: source LEGEND R1 R4 router with attached group member R2 router with no attached group member R5 link used for forwarding, i indicates order link added by algorithm R3 R7 R6 Reverse Path Forwarding if (mcast datagram received on incoming link on shortest path back to center) then flood datagram onto all outgoing links else ignore datagram
  • rely on router’s knowledge of unicast shortest path from it to sender
  • each router has simple forwarding behavior:
  • Reverse Path Forwarding: example S: source LEGEND R1 R4 router with attached group member R2 router with no attached group member R5 datagram will be forwarded R3 R7 R6 datagram will not be forwarded
  • result is a source-specific reverse SPT
  • may be a bad choice with asymmetric links
  • Reverse Path Forwarding: pruning
  • forwarding tree contains subtrees with no mcast group members
  • no need to forward datagrams down subtree
  • “prune” msgs sent upstream by router with no downstream group members
  • LEGEND S: source R1 router with attached group member R4 router with no attached group member R2 P P R5 prune message links with multicast forwarding P R3 R7 R6 Shared-Tree: Steiner Tree
  • Steiner Tree: minimum cost tree connecting all routers with attached group members
  • problem is NP-complete
  • excellent heuristics exists
  • not used in practice:
  • computational complexity
  • information about entire network needed
  • monolithic: rerun whenever a router needs to join/leave
  • Center-based trees
  • single delivery tree shared by all
  • one router identified as “center” of tree
  • to join:
  • edge router sends unicast join-msg addressed to center router
  • join-msg “processed” by intermediate routers and forwarded towards center
  • join-msg either hits existing tree branch for this center, or arrives at center
  • path taken by join-msg becomes new branch of tree for this router
  • Center-based trees: an example Suppose R6 chosen as center: LEGEND R1 router with attached group member R4 3 router with no attached group member R2 2 1 R5 path order in which join messages generated R3 1 R7 R6 Internet Multicasting Routing: DVMRP
  • DVMRP: distance vector multicast routing protocol, RFC1075
  • flood and prune: reverse path forwarding, source-based tree
  • RPF tree based on DVMRP’s own routing tables constructed by communicating DVMRP routers
  • no assumptions about underlying unicast
  • initial datagram to mcast group flooded everywhere via RPF
  • routers not wanting group: send upstream prune msgs
  • DVMRP: continued…
  • soft state: DVMRP router periodically (1 min.) “forgets” branches are pruned:
  • mcast data again flows down unpruned branch
  • downstream router: reprune or else continue to receive data
  • routers can quickly regraft to tree
  • following IGMP join at leaf
  • odds and ends
  • commonly implemented in commercial routers
  • Mbone routing done using DVMRP
  • Tunneling Q: How to connect “islands” of multicast routers in a “sea” of unicast routers? logical topology physical topology
  • mcast datagram encapsulated inside “normal” (non-multicast-addressed) datagram
  • normal IP datagram sent thru “tunnel” via regular IP unicast to receiving mcast router
  • receiving mcast router unencapsulates to get mcast datagram
  • not dependent on any specific underlying unicast routing algorithm (works with all) two different multicast distribution scenarios : PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast
  • Dense:
  • group members densely packed, in “close” proximity.
  • bandwidth more plentiful
  • Sparse:
  • # networks with group members small wrt # interconnected networks
  • group members “widely dispersed”
  • bandwidth not plentiful
  • Dense algorithm (works with all) group membership by routers assumed until routers explicitly prune data-driven construction on mcast tree (e.g., RPF) bandwidth and non-group-router processing profligate Sparse: no membership until routers explicitly join receiver- driven construction of mcast tree (e.g., center-based) bandwidth and non-group-router processing conservative Consequences of Sparse-Dense Dichotomy: PIM- Dense Mode algorithm (works with all)
  • flood-and-prune RPF, similar to DVMRP but
  • underlying unicast protocol provides RPF info for incoming datagram
  • less complicated (less efficient) downstream flood than DVMRP reduces reliance on underlying routing algorithm
  • has protocol mechanism for router to detect it is a leaf-node router
  • center-based approach algorithm (works with all) router sends join msg to rendezvous point (RP) intermediate routers update state and forward join after joining via RP, router can switch to source-specific tree increased performance: less concentration, shorter paths PIM - Sparse Mode R1 R4 join R2 join R5 join R3 R7 R6 all data multicast from rendezvous point rendezvous point sender(s): algorithm (works with all) unicast data to RP, which distributes down RP-rooted tree RP can extend mcast tree upstream to source RP can send stop msg if no attached receivers “no one is listening!” PIM - Sparse Mode R1 R4 join R2 join R5 join R3 R7 R6 all data multicast from rendezvous point rendezvous point 4. 1 Introduction algorithm (works with all) 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: summary Network Layer
    Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks