Never ending problems in OM

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Never ending problems in OM. Production line downtime Shoplifting in the store New product New market/segment Names for products. Chapter 6 Brainstorming and its Variants. Under-productive meetings-
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Never ending problems in OMProduction line downtime Shoplifting in the storeNew product New market/segment Names for productsChapter 6Brainstorming and its VariantsUnder-productive meetings-Solution without any real conviction/confidence Feel we know a better solution- in unconsciousLater we realize a better solutionObjective finding - define the problem area
  • Acceptance finding (divergent)
  • Fact finding - gather information
  • Solution finding - evaluate and choose between
  • Problem finding - define the problem correctly
  • Idea finding - generate solutions to the problem
  • Brainstorming
  • A paradigm-preserving approach
  • The idea- gain insights into problems that otherwise we might overlook
  • It enables us to bring to mind those other solutions that somehow always seem to evade us when we most need them
  • Open-ended problems?
  • Technical/professional problem?
  • Brainstorming – A Method for Identifying Issues and Formulating Hypotheses
  • Useful when there is a wide range of possible issues and solutions
  • For generating and not for testing an idea
  • Brainstorming techniques
  • group brainstorming
  • individual brainstorming, and
  • storyboarding
  • Osborne’s RulesBrainstorming Rules
  • Evaluate later
  • One does not have to defend or explain ideas
  • Go for quantity
  • Flexibility- different theme
  • ice cream, microwave dinners, concentrated fruit juice
  • Fluency- variety within a theme
  • Raspberry Ripple, Raisin, Vanilla and Chocolate
  • Encourage wild ideas- dazzling vs. Satisfying
  • Build on other ideas
  • Elaboration, new direction
  • State the purpose and objective from the onsetSet ground rules for participantsGive everyone an opportunity to participateSolicit all ideas and opinions – nothing is rejected until consensus building takes placeAfter exhausting all ideas, eliminate certain ideas, e.g. not relevant, duplicative, etc.Finalize outcome using consensusHighest Priority, Assigning Points, etc.Tips for BrainstormingNot recommended unless time is too tightparticipants are rarely availablegroup is too largeIndividual brainstormingSteps of classical brainstormingFig. 6.3 Classical brainstorming stepsBrainstorming Process“How to” … Redefinition
  • Problem as given
  • How to “introduce new products which are winners”
  • Sub-problem
  • How to “identify winning new products”
  • Looking at the problem in a new way
  • How to “satisfy customers’ wants and needs”
  • Metaphorical approach
  • How to “get the horse first past the post”
  • Example
  • Problem as given:
  • How to decrease production times.
  • Re-definitions:
  • How to increase the use of computers.
  • How to improve the efficiency of the workforce.
  • How to generate flexibility.
  • How to replace batch production with continuous production.
  • Problem taken:
  • How to improve the efficiency of the workforce.
  • Example …
  • Ideation stage:
  • Job sharing between departments.
  • Introduce performance-related pay.
  • Encourage social outings.
  • Give workers super powers.
  • Get rid of lunch breaks.
  • Discuss how to achieve common goals.
  • Bring in organizational consultants.
  • Replace workers with computers.
  • YAE
  • A clothes manufacturer is facing resistance from employees to the frequent changes to job and work methods that developments in the product and production methods have forced upon them.
  • Re-definitions
  • How to make employees more enthusiastic to new methods.
  • How to make new methods more welcome.
  • How to make the rewards more appealing.
  • How to determine what kinds of rewards to give.
  • How to achieve the appropriate balance between new methods and rewards.
  • How to make employees more enthusiastic to new methods- Ideas
  • Give them incentives.
  • Make them co-operate.
  • Ask them what would please them.
  • Make the new methods appear challenging.
  • Introduce benefits with each new method introduced.
  • Reduce negative responses towards new tasks.
  • Train the employees to become more flexible.
  • Alter the inspection routines.
  • Show them that co-operation will be to their benefit.
  • How to make rewards more appealing- Ideas
  • Ask the employees themselves.
  • Look at a crystal ball.
  • Give them non-monetary rewards.
  • Make them offers they cannot refuse.
  • Offer holiday trips and parties.
  • Tell them what they will lose if they do not co-operate.
  • Ask someone who knows.
  • Show them the punishments.
  • A Solution
  • The answer seems to lie in reducing or eliminating the hostility towards the new ways of performing jobs or tasks. Employees may be persuaded to have a more positive attitude if some kind of reward is offered with each new method that they learn. This way new methods will appear challenging rather than threatening.
  • For example
  • learning a new method might be rewarded with token points. After collecting a certain number of points employees might be offered a special reward such as three-days additional paid leave.
  • quantity is favored over qualityDispose Of Unsold Stock Of Old Fashioned Black Umbrellas
  • Publicity carriers for firms
  • Give away on rainy day
  • Use material to make hats
  • Use upside down as irrigation devices
  • Sell to UK
  • Burn down warehouse and collect insurance
  • Make giant sculpture
  • Use struts as bicycle spokes
  • Forms of brainstorming
  • Classical Brainstorming
  • Rules, Process
  • Variants
  • Wildest idea
  • Stop and go
  • Round-robin
  • Gordon-Little
  • Trigger method
  • 1 Introduce the problem in an abstract form and ask participants to suggest ideas for solving the problem in this abstract form.
  • 2 In the course of the ideation process the leader introduces key pieces of information associated with the problem. As a result of this information the problem is progressively refined to a less abstract level.
  • 3The leader eventually reveals the original problem to the group.
  • 4Using previously generated ideas as stimuli,the group generates ideas with regard to the specific needs of the original problem.
  • YAE
  • Suppose the real problem is to do with implementing change in the workplace:
  • 1 The problem is first introduced in an abstract form – e.g.how to get something off the ground. Suggestions might include ‘attaching it to a balloon’.
  • 2 After ideas have been exhausted at this level the leader might suggest that the problem involves getting a new project off the ground.Suggestions at this stage might include ‘extensive consultation with everyone involved in the project’.
  • 3 When the problem is eventually revealed,the suggestions at stages 1 and 2 might be usefully modified to produce novel insights into the real problem.
  • Drawbacks
  • It doesn’t readily allow for problem definition
  • If the method itself is used to define the problem- then it preclude its use for generating ideas for the same problem.
  • Problem with brainstorming
  • Misunderstood and badly executed by managers who assume that any discussion of ideas is automatically brainstorming
  • Success depends on the experience and skills of the group leader
  • Not always enough to help staff grappling with ‘stuckness’ on an issue
  • Better-suited to conceptually simple problems, as opposed to the more complex development of those ideas.
  • Relies on random association and therefore does not always produce original solutions.
  • Not suitable for high technical content, people motivation and problems requiring the consideration of written material.
  • Brainwriting
  • Individuals or a group put ideas in writing
  • Each person writes their ideas down on
  • index cards,
  • self-adhesive notes or
  • slips of paper.
  • Everyone gets to express their ideas completely and quickly. Individuals can write their ideas down in a private, quiet place and share them later.
  • Brain-lining
  • The word combines the words ‘brainstorming’ and ‘online’, which describes fairly well what is meant by brainlining.
  • live, realtime online sessions
  • Brain-lining …
  • These brainlining sessions make use of games designed for the peculiar dynamics of online idea generation. Brainlining games stimulate the flow of ideas, encourage humor, and make the process fun.
  • Brainlining is extremely efficient. It allows all participants to enter ideas simultaneously. All ideas are visible, everybody can see every idea, and all ideas are recorded and available to all participants after the session has ended
  • StimulantsModeratorOnline ForumsBrain-lining Steps
  • 1 The Moderator is in charge;one has to follow the Moderator’s directions.
  • 2 Only the Moderator types in ALL CAPITALS and only when giving directions.
  • 3 The games are played with intensity,mutual support and fun.
  • Cross-pollinationKnowledge BuildingGlobalAlphabet soup game
  • 1 The Moderator states the problem and announces a letter of the alphabet.
  • 2 All Brainliners make Suggestions using the given letter.
  • 3 Play continues until the Moderator gives a new letter or stops the game.
  • Moderator: HOW DO WE GET MORE PEOPLE TO BRAINLINE?THE LETTER IS ‘M’.
  • Jazz: Do it to music.
  • Classic: Offer more free time on the Net.
  • Pop: Stress the magic of it.
  • Rock: Show them it is a way of meeting people.
  • Jazz: Magnify their need to join.
  • Rock the boat game
  • 1Moderator announces the problem and makes a Suggestion.
  • 2 Any Brainliner makes an Opposing Suggestion.
  • 3 All Brainliners pitch in with Opposing Suggestions and continue until the Moderator calls a stop to the game.
  • Example
  • Moderator: HOW DO WE MAKE SURE WE ARE NEVER LATE FOR APPOINTMENTS?
  • Make sure we don’t go to meetings.
  • Jazz: Make sure we always go to meetings – early.
  • Rock: Make sure meetings don’t start before we arrive.
  • Classic: Ask for meetings to be held up until we can attend.
  • GW-C6- Will not be collectedCases1. Inefficient office juniors2. More quality from work? Quiz 2Ch 6Date 25/26 MarchProject Paper due: April 16thProject Presentation: 18-21 AprilFinal: 18-21 AprilWhere do we go from here?Generate some more ideasEvaluate possible plans of actionWhere Do We Go From Here?Force field analysis is a technique for looking at the forces for and against a decisionA formal method for weighing up pros and cons Whether a selected course of action is possibleThe actions needed to follow a course of actionForce Field AnalysisIdeas here are useful in conjunction with brainstorming and they are all useful in their own right as problem solving techniquesForce Field Analysis DiagramDriving ForcesRestraining Forces5432112345Decision StatementDescribe your plan or proposal for change in the middle of the diagramList all driving forces for change in one columnList all restraining forces against change in the other columnAssign a score from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong) to each forceAnalysis perform the following stepsAnything that affects a decision can be considered a forceTypical forces often focus on:CostsStaffSystems/ITEnvironmental issuesAlways be careful when giving force strengths – don’t fudge it!What Are Forces?Imagine that we are the manager of Honda Bangladesh Ltd and we are considering installing a new machine for spraying motorbike parts – previously a job done by handWhat are the forces affecting this decision?Force Field Analysis ExampleForce Field Analysis Example …Driving ForcesRestraining Forces5432112345Decision StatementLoss of staff overtimeCustomers want better paint jobsStaff frightened of new technologyImprove speed of productionEnvironmental impactRaise output volumesCostControl maintenance costsTOTAL: 10TOTAL: 11DisruptionDetermine if the project is viableTry to improve the probability of success:Increase the strength of the driving forces FOR the projectDecrease the strength of the restraining forces against the projectRecord tasks required to enact changesWhat Do We Do With The Analysis?Force field diagrams can always be revisedAdding new forcesAdjusting force strength based on planned actionsAdjusting one force can have negative effects on other forcesTraining staff to reduce their fear of new technology this will also increase the cost of the projectChanging The ForcesWe might simply decide that the plan is not worth going ahead with!However, we might also consider some changes to make the initial plan more viableTraining staff (increase cost, +1) eliminate fear of technology (reduce fear, -2)Show staff that change is necessary for business survival (new force FOR, +2)Raise wages to reflect new productivity (cost +1, loss of overtime -2)Choose environmentally-friendly machines (eliminate environmental impact, -1)Solving the problem- what to do?What to do? …Driving ForcesRestraining Forces5432112345Decision StatementCustomers want better engines
  • Train staff
  • Show machines are necessary
  • Raise wages
  • Enviro-friendly machines
  • Loss of staff overtimeImprove speed of productionStaff frightened of new technologyRaise output volumesCostChange is necessaryDisruptionControl maintenancecostsTOTAL: 12TOTAL: 8Force Field Analysis Example …Driving ForcesRestraining Forces5432112345Decision StatementLoss of staff overtimeCustomers want better paint jobsStaff frightened of new technologyImprove speed of productionEnvironmental impactRaise output volumesCostControl maintenance costsTOTAL: 10TOTAL: 11DisruptionForce field analysis is a formal way in which to record the pros and cons associated with pursuing an ideaIt can be used after brainstorming to evaluate ideas considered worth pursuing (or any other decision we have to make)Force field analysis is quite subjectiveIt is important that we are honest when listing pros and cons and their strengths as otherwise the analysis becomes a shamForce Field Analysis SummaryFigure 6.2 Overview of some brainstorming methods
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