Organisasi dan Arsitektur Komputer

Publish in

Documents

130 views

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 22
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
Organisasi dan Arsitektur Komputer. PERKEMBANGAN GENERASI KOMPUTER . Generasi-0 : Komputer Mekanis (1642 – 1945). Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662): Mesin kalkulator pertama (1642), mampu melakukan operasi + dan – Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Liebniz (1646-1716)
Transcript
Organisasi dan Arsitektur Komputer PERKEMBANGAN GENERASI KOMPUTER Generasi-0 : KomputerMekanis (1642 – 1945)
  • Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662):
  • Mesinkalkulatorpertama (1642), mampumelakukanoperasi+dan –
  • Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Liebniz (1646-1716)
  • Membuatmesin yang mampumelakukanoperasiperkaliandanpembagian ( 30 tahunkemudiansetelah Pascal)
  • Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871)
  • Difference Engine:
  • penambahan/pengurangan, diferensialberhinggapadapolinomium
  • hasiltercetakpadalembaranlogam (gravier)
  • Analytical Engine:
  • memiliki 4 komponen: store (1000 50-word), mill (ALU), input (punched card) dan output.
  • Dapatmenjalankan program dari input punched-card.
  • Programmer: Ada Augusta Lovelace
  • Belumdapatbekerjasecarasempurnakarenaketerbatasanpirantimekanis.
  • Generasi-1 : TabungHampa (1945 – 1955)
  • COLOSSUS :
  • komputer digital elektronik yang pertama.
  • dibuatoleh British intelligence selama WW-II, untukmemecahkanpesan-pesanrahasia yang disadapdarifihakJerman
  • dirahasiakansampaisekitar pertengahan-70-an
  • ENIAC (1943 – 1946)
  • ditujukanuntukkalkulasitabel-tabeljaraktembakartilery
  • berisi 18000 tabung, 1500 relay, berat 30 ton, listrik 140 KW.
  • diprogramlangsungmelaluisaklardankabel-kabelsambungan.
  • John Von Neumann
  • semulaanggota team pengembangan ENIAC
  • pertama kali yang menggunakanaritmatikabiner
  • Konsep: Strored Program Computer
  • arsitekturkomputer yang memiliki 5 bagian: memory, ALU, program control, input dan output.
  • semuakomputer modern menganutarsitekturdari von Neumann.
  • Arsitektur Stored Program Computer
  • IAS
  • Implementasikonsep von- Neumann
  • DibuatdiPrinceton Institute for Advanced Studies (Selesaidibuat 1952)
  • Memori: 1000 x 40 bit words
  • Binary number
  • 2 x 20 bit instructions
  • Set registers (dalam CPU):
  • Memory Buffer Register (MBR)
  • Memory Address Register (MAR)
  • Instruction Register (IR)
  • Instruction Buffer Register (IBR)
  • Program Counter (PC)
  • Accumulator (AC)
  • Multiplier Quotient (MQ)
  • Structure Detail - IAS Generasi-2 : Transistor (1955 – 1965)
  • Transistor ditemukanpadath 1948 di Bell Labs, oleh John Barden, Walter Brattain dan William Shockley.
  • TX-0 (Transistorized eXperimental computer 0), komputer transistor yang pertama, dibuatdi Lincoln Lab MIT.
  • DEC PDP-1, komputer mini pertamadenganhargamurah
  • DEC PDP-8, menggunakan single-bus (Omnibus)
  • CDC 6600 (1964), komputer parallel pertama, memiliki unit komputasidan unit kendaliterpisah.
  • Burroughs B5000, menggunakanpemrogramanbahasatingkattinggi (Algol-60)
  • NCR & RCAmembuatkomputerdenganukurankecil
  • IBM 7000
  • Generasi-3 : IC (1965 – 1980)
  • IBM System/360
  • Menggantikanseri 7000 ( tidakkompatible )
  • Memilikibeberapaseridenganbahasamesin yang sama (“family” of computers)
  • Dirancanguntukkeperluan scientist maupunkomersial
  • Komputerpertama yang memilikikemampuan multiprogramming
  • DEC PDP-11
  • Banyakdigunakandiuniversitas.
  • Generasi-4 : VLSI (1980 – )
  • Komputer Personal
  • Komputer yang memilikikemampuantinggidenganharga yang murah
  • Moore’s Law
  • Increased density of components on chip
  • Gordon Moore – co-founder of Intel
  • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year
  • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little
  • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months
  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance
  • Smaller size gives increased flexibility
  • Reduced power and cooling requirements
  • Fewer interconnections increases reliability
  • DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure Computer Families
  • Each of the following architectures define a family of processors.
  • Pentium II – Intel
  • UltraSPARC II – Sun Microsystems
  • picoJava II – Sun Microsystems
  • Pentium II Family This family has evolved from a calculator chip. It started out as a 4-bit CPU on a chip for a Japanese calculator manufacturer. Here’s a summarized history: 4004, 8008, 8086, 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II UltraSPARC II Family This family grew out of one person’s love of running UNIX who had a distaste for doing so on timeshared computers. A graduate student at Stanford built the first SUN (Stanford University Network) workstation. It Was originally powered by a Motorola 68020 processor, and came with built-in Ethernet connection. SUN-1 SUN-2 SUN-3 Then switched to a RISC architecture to design their own processor SPARC(Scalable Processor ARChitecture). UltraSPARC I – a 64 bit architecture Pentium Evolution (1)
  • 8080
  • first general purpose microprocessor
  • 8 bit data path
  • Used in first personal computer – Altair
  • 8086
  • much more powerful
  • 16 bit
  • instruction cache, prefetch few instructions
  • 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC
  • 80286
  • 16 Mbyte memory addressable
  • up from 1Mb
  • 80386
  • 32 bit
  • Support for multitasking
  • Pentium Evolution (2)
  • 80486
  • sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining
  • built in maths co-processor
  • Pentium
  • Superscalar
  • Multiple instructions executed in parallel
  • Pentium Pro
  • Increased superscalar organization
  • Aggressive register renaming
  • branch prediction
  • data flow analysis
  • speculative execution
  • Pentium Evolution (3)
  • Pentium II
  • MMX technology
  • graphics, video & audio processing
  • Pentium III
  • Additional floating point instructions for 3D graphics
  • Pentium 4
  • Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals
  • Further floating point and multimedia enhancements
  • Itanium
  • 64 bit
  • see chapter 15
  • Itanium 2
  • Hardware enhancements to increase speed
  • See Intel web pages for detailed information on processors
  • PowerPC Family (1)
  • 601:
  • Quickly to market. 32-bit machine
  • 603:
  • Low-end desktop and portable
  • 32-bit
  • Comparable performance with 601
  • Lower cost and more efficient implementation
  • 604:
  • Desktop and low-end servers
  • 32-bit machine
  • Much more advanced superscalar design
  • Greater performance
  • 620:
  • High-end servers
  • 64-bit architecture
  • PowerPC Family (2)
  • 740/750:
  • Also known as G3
  • Two levels of cache on chip
  • G4:
  • Increases parallelism and internal speed
  • G5:
  • Improvements in parallelism and internal speed
  • 64-bit organization
  • Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks