Settlement Colonization

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Settlement Colonization. 1500-1763. Three major powers controlled the known world: a) Great Britain b) Spain c) France In 1492 Columbus sailed to the Americas for Spain 1497 and 1498 John Cabot sailed to North America for Britain 1577 Sir Francis Drake landed in San Francisco
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SettlementColonization1500-1763Three major powers controlled the known world: a) Great Britainb) Spainc) France
  • In 1492 Columbus sailed to the Americas for Spain
  • 1497 and 1498 John Cabot sailed to North America for Britain
  • 1577 Sir Francis Drake landed in San Francisco
  • Events in Europe shaped the nature of exploration
  • Britain and France both looked for the Northwest Passage to Asia
  • Spain
  • Spanish explorers dominated Central and South America
  • 1519-21 Cortes conquers Mexico
  • De Soto explores the southeast
  • 1532 Pizarro conquers Peru
  • 1540 Coronado explores the southwest
  • 1588 – The Armada is defeated
  • France
  • French explorers sailed along the St. Lawrence River, through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico
  • They were focused on furs and establishing trade with the Indians – the Spanish focused on wealth and exploitation of the Indians
  • 1524 Verrazano explores the east coast
  • 1534 Cartier journeys along the St. Lawrence
  • 1680 La Salle sails down the Mississippi
  • Reasons for Colonization
  • Population increase in Britain
  • Enclosure movement
  • Primogeniture – first-born sons gets everything
  • Religious freedom – Puritans and separatists
  • Economic opportunity –a) based on Spanish wealth b) Jamestown
  • Joint-stock companies facilitated exploration
  • Dumping unwanted people - Georgia
  • Jamestown - Virginia
  • The first attempt at colonization was by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584
  • In 1585 a small group tried establish a colony at Roanoke. The area was named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth I of England
  • Sir Francis Drake rescued the first settlers, but in 1587 another group arrived
  • By 1590 this group had disappeared without trace – this was the “lost colony” – “Croatoan”
  • The next attempt to colonize would be 20 years later
  • In 1606 the Virginia Company received a charter from James I for settlement
  • Settlers were guaranteed same rights as Englishmen
  • Dec. 1607 about 100 settlers landed at Jamestown (40 had died on the voyage)
  • Virginia was terrible – disease, cold, wet
  • The colonists/adventurers had not intended to stay – they wanted to get rich and return to England, but because of poor location, swampy land, laziness, and disease many died
  • There was no incentive to work
  • 1608 Capt. John Smith took over and forced the colonists to work
  • Smith developed good relations with the local Indians - Powhatan
  • 1609 Smith forced to return to England
  • 1609-10 “starving time”
  • Gradually relations with the Indians deteriorated
  • By 1612 John Rolfe found a way to grow tobacco which enabled to colony to survive
  • By 1616 tobacco is a staple export
  • Indentured servants arrived to work in the fields
  • The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 when John Rolfe married Pocahontas
  • In 1622 the Indians, fearing a lose of land, attacked again and killed over 300 settlers including Rolfe
  • In 1618 the Virginia Co. developed the Headright System which gave 50 acres of land to settlers and 50 more for each person he brought
  • 1n 1619:a) the Virginia Company formed the first law-making representative body in America – the Virginia House of Burgessesb) Colonists given same rights as Englishmenc) the first Africans arrivedd) 90 women arrived and sold to husbands
  • In 1622 James I dissolved the Virginia Company and made Virginia a royal colony in 1624
  • He also established the Church of England and the clergy were supported by the tax payers
  • New England Colonies
  • In 1530s Henry VIII created the Anglican Church – but still very Catholic
  • The Puritans wanted to completely purify the Anglican Church of Catholic influence
  • Separatists (extreme Calvinists) wanted to break away from the Anglican Church because of philosophical differences
  • James I kicked the Separatists out of England and they went to Holland
  • They hated Holland!
  • They negotiated with the Virginia Company and agreed to relocate to the New World
  • In 1620 they arrived off the coast of New England
  • They surveyed the area and agreed to settle Plymouth, not Virginia
  • They created a colony without authority and became squatters
  • Only about the colonists were Separatists but they were all hard working and determined – unlike Virginia
  • Plymouth
  • Before landing they agreed upon the Mayflower Compact
  • The compact was not a Constitution, but a set of rules
  • Almost half the settlers died that first winter, but the next year the harvest was plentiful
  • William Bradford was chosen governor 30 times
  • In 1691 Plymouth merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • In 1623 Maine was absorbed by Massachusetts and remained part of Massachusetts for over a century
  • In 1629 Puritans gained a royal charter to settle in the New World
  • They were a large, well-equipped group led by John Winthrop who wanted to create “a city upon a hill”
  • Thanks to fishing, furs, and ship building the colony thrived
  • Almost immediately the franchise was extended to all males who were “freemen” and who belonged to the Puritan Churches
  • About two-fifths of the population could vote
  • The provincial government was not a democracy
  • Winthrop feared democracy
  • Religious leaders dictated who would be allowed in the Church and so they controlled the society
  • Quakers were fined, flogged, and/or banished
  • Anne Hutchinson claimed a pure life was no sign of salvation – angered the Church
  • She claimed she was instructed by God
  • In 1638 she was banished and went to Rhode Island
  • The Great Migration – 75,000 Puritans
  • Roger Williams went further – demanding a break from the Church of England
  • Argued that civil decisions should not make religious dictates
  • In 1635 he was banished to Rhode Island
  • Rhode Island
  • The land of outcasts – “Little Rhody” “Rogues Island”
  • People who settled there were not necessarily similar but not wanted elsewhere
  • Most were against special privileges
  • It secured a charter in 1644 which:a) recognized freedom of religionb) accepted a separation of church and statec) no taxes to support the churchd) no compulsory church attendance
  • Connecticut
  • In 1635 Hartford was founded by Rev. Thomas Hooker
  • The settlers were Puritans
  • In 1639 they drafted the Fundamental Orders- a modern constitution and the first written constitution in the colonies
  • New Hampshire
  • John Mason left rigid Massachusetts for New Hampshire
  • In 1639 settlers signed the Exeter Compact which had been patterned after the Mayflower Compact
  • In 1641 New Hampshire was absorbed by Massachusetts
  • In 1679 it was separated and made a royal colony
  • The Middle Colonies are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,and Delaware
  • All had fertile, gently sloping land
  • Farms generally not huge
  • Usually friendly with the Indians
  • Incredible cultural and religious diversity
  • Colonies were more ethnically mixed
  • Very socially and economically democratic
  • New York
  • In 1609 Henry Hudson explored the coast of New York and Delaware and claimed the area for the Dutch
  • The Dutch West Indies company purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians for some trinkets
  • They established New Amsterdam and gave large tracts of lands to promoters who brought groups of settlers to the New Netherlands
  • The settlers were from all across Europe
  • The Indians, New Englanders, and Swedes all attacked the Dutch
  • The Swedes established New Sweden on the Delaware River
  • In 1655 the Dutch sent the one-legged Peter Stuyvesant to remove the Swedes
  • Stuyvesant besieged the Swedes and forced them to surrender – thus ending New Sweden
  • In 1664 Charles II granted the area of New York to his brother the Duke of York
  • The English easily defeated the Dutch and renamed the area New York
  • New Jersey
  • After the Dutch were forced out the land between Virginia and New England the Duke of York made a proprietary grant to Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley
  • The plan was to sell the land and make a fortune from real estate
  • The area was called New Jersey
  • In 1702 it was granted a Royal charter
  • Pennsylvania
  • In 1681 William Penn received a massive land grant from the king
  • The area was already inhabited by thousands of squatters
  • Philadelphia was well-organized and much better than most other cities
  • Penn acquired land by purchasing it from the Indians
  • The colony developed a dislike towards slavery and attracted people from all classes and cultures
  • The colony was a “Holy Experiment” for Quakers
  • The Quakers were against war and violence and lived simple lives
  • Freedom of worship extended to all except Jews and Catholics
  • The colony welcomed all people and the Quakers treated the Indians with respect. However, non-Quakers were often violent towards the Indians
  • By 1700 only Virginia was richer and more populated
  • In contrast to the New England and middle colonies the southern colonies:Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, were predominantly rural settlements
  • The social, political, and economic structure was dominated by the wealthy farmer
  • Maryland
  • Was the fourth colony founded (second plantation colony)
  • In 1634 by Lord Baltimore as a “Catholic Haven”
  • Large tracts of land were given to Catholics, but Protestants were also welcome
  • Maryland Toleration Act decreed religious freedom for all except Jews and atheists (death penalty)
  • The colony prospered thanks to tobacco
  • Initially depended upon indentured servants
  • Carolina
  • In 1663 Carolina was named after King Charles II
  • Virginia colonists inhabited the region which was known as Albermarle and resented being part of Carolina
  • The king gave 8 proprietors the rights to the colony, but they focused on the southern part
  • 1669 3 ships under the command of Sir Anthony Ashley-Cooper sailed to Barbados to collect sugar farmers
  • In 1670 Charleston was founded
  • Many settlers in the Carolinas were squatters – people who owned no land
  • They were rough and rugged and defied authority
  • Because of their immunity to malaria, slaves were hired to work the fields
  • Fundamental Constitution of Carolina was written by Ashley-Cooper and his secretary, John Locke offered religious toleration to encourage settlers
  • In 1690s rice was introduced and became the staple crop
  • In 1691 the northern region was recognized by the crown and called North Carolina
  • 1712 the Carolinas separated
  • In 1729 South Carolina became a Royal colony
  • Georgia
  • Philanthropic experiment, founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 – the last colony
  • Intended as a buffer between the French in Louisiana and Spanish in Florida
  • Was meant as a refuge for English debtors
  • All Christians –except Catholics enjoyed religious freedom
  • Missionaries, including John Wesley, tried to convert the Indians
  • Constant struggles with the Spanish in Florida
  • Georgia became a buffer between the Spanish and the English colonies
  • In 1738 Oglethorpe fought the Spanish in the King George’s War (War of Austrian Succession)
  • Oglethorpe was able to get a victory
  • In 1740 the Spanish attacked Georgia and Oglethorpe and his men defeated the Spanish and sent them back to Florida
  • Plantation Colonies
  • All used slavery
  • Development of cities was secondary
  • All aspects of life centered on the plantation
  • Tobacco and rice were the main crops
  • All permitted some religious freedom
  • Indians and Spanish were a continual problem
  • More closely associated with Britain
  • Iroquois
  • The Iroquois lived in New York State and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Deganawidah, and Hiawatha
  • They fought other Indian groups before the Dutch, French, and English
  • They allied with the French or British depending on the best deal
  • Puritans and Indians
  • Initially the Indians tried to befriend the settlers
  • Squanto, a Wampanoag, helped keep the peace
  • In 1637 after mounting tension the Pequot War started
  • The settlers annihilated the Pequot and established almost 40 years of peace
  • In 1675 Metacom (called King Philip by the English) united the Indians in an attempt to remove the settlers – he failed
  • 100 years after Columbus, 90% of the Indians that came into contact with Europeans died
  • Part 2Colonial Society in the 17th CenturyLife in the colonies
  • Life in all the colonies was hard – dictated by religion, economics, and/or geography
  • Most migrants were indentured servants
  • As the number of planters increased so profits decreased causing conflict between large plantation owners and small farmers
  • Poor whites lost the economic opportunity, much like the slaves
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Gov. William Berkeley gave tax-free land grants to himself and his friends
  • The corrupt House of Burgesses voted to exclude landless freemen from voting
  • The poor yeoman wanted the Indians removed from the frontier to make more land available
  • Wealthy farmers wanted to limit the amount of land available and trade for furs
  • The yeomen formed a militia and began killing Indians
  • Berkeley did not want the fur trade disrupted so he agreed to build forts along the frontier
  • Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the governing council, protested and killed some peaceful Indians – Berkeley arrested Bacon
  • Bacon’s men threatened to release him by force
  • Berkeley agreed to political reforms to keep the peace and restored the vote to the landless freemen
  • Bacon’s men still burned Jamestown and issued a “Manifesto and Declaration of the People” and an end to rule by the wealthy
  • Although bacon died in 1676 the rebellion resulted in lower taxes and an expansion into Indian land
  • Virginia and Maryland stopped accepting indentured servants and focused instead on slaves
  • 90% of the colonists involved in agriculture
  • Tobacco was the staple crop of Maryland and Virginia
  • Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, New Jersey produced grain
  • New England focused on ship building and fishing
  • 1730s the economy was collapsing because of British control
  • When the colonists looked for other markets the British cracked down
  • The colonists resorted to smuggling
  • Slavery
  • 75% of English immigrants were indentured servants
  • 40% died before the seven years ended
  • By the end of the 1600s the supply of indentured servants was running low, forcing southern farmers to resort to slave labor
  • The first Africans were treated even worse than indentured servants, but they were not legally enslaved and through hard work some did achieve relative success
  • By 1660 slavery was a hereditary and permanent position
  • The land was taken from the Indians, the workers came from Africa, the capital came from Europe
  • Sophisticated slave-catching systems were implemented in Africa to keep the colonies supplied
  • Sugar became the most profitable crop, but with the Navigation Acts sugar and tobacco was re-exported and accounted for over half of Britain’s exports
  • Slave who survived the Middle Passage were worked to death in the sugar fields
  • Plantations
  • The land and climate in the South led to the plantation system
  • Huge plantations grew rice, tobacco, and indigo
  • The plantation owners became the wealthy aristocracy and dominated the political and social life of the South
  • The plantations needed a plentiful supply of labor
  • By 1750 over 200,000 slaves worked on plantations
  • Mercantilism
  • Economic policy to protect the Mother country
  • Colonies provide a market and raw materials
  • 1660s – Navigation Acts a) all colonial imports and exports must be on English shipsb) certain items could only be shipped through British ports
  • In 1675 Charles II created the Lords of Trade to enforce the mercantilism, but they became colonial administrators
  • 1699 Wool Act – forbade the export of wool from the colonies
  • 1732 Hat Act – prohibited exportation of hats from one colony to another
  • 1733 Molasses Act – taxed molasses which was needed for rum
  • 1679 Lords of Trade deny Massachusetts the right to add new Hampshire, and make NH a separate colony
  • In 1684 the Massachusetts charter was revoked by the Lords of Trade
  • Society
  • Puritans believed the world was full of evil and danger – very superstitious
  • Between 1647-62 Massachusetts and Connecticut hanged 14 people for witchcraft
  • In 1692 at Salem175 people were arrested , 20 women were hanged
  • After the trials people began to look at religion in a different light – there were no more witch trials after 1692
  • Enlightenment philosophy emphasized reason
  • People
  • Puritans encouraged self-government with all landowners having a voice
  • This was far more democratic than in England
  • They believed in a social and economic hierarchy – the largest plots of land when to the families with high social status
  • A society of yeoman farmers emerged
  • Town meeting decided town policy
  • Religion
  • The Enlightenment caused people to think differently about religion
  • Some including Franklin turned to Deism
  • Less wealthy colonists turned to Pietism, which emphasized pious behavior and religious emotion
  • Starting in 1739 George Whitefield ( a follower of John Wesley) began a new style of preaching known as the Great Awakening
  • Hundreds felt the “New Light” of God and became followers of Whitefield
  • “Old Lights” – the conservatives, criticized the emotion of the New Lights
  • Thus the Great Awakening undermined the authority of the church and ministers
  • As a result of the Great Awakening colleges opened to prepare ministers for preaching – Princeton, Columbia, and Brown
  • Indians
  • Puritans believed they were acting in the name of God, so the land was really theirs
  • In 1636 the Pequot attacked the English who had intruded on their land
  • The English allied with other Indians and killed over 500 Pequot
  • Puritans saw the Indians as savages
  • Disease and violence subdued the Indians in New England
  • In 1675 Indians had killed an Indian missionary and 3 Indians were captured put on trial and executed at Plymouth
  • Metacom (King Philip to the English) allied with some other tribes against the English but it was to late
  • Land-hungry settlers started a war against the Indians
  • Both sides resorted to unimagined violence resulting in hundreds of deaths
  • Eventually, of course, the Indians lost – and lost everything
  • Colonial Unity
  • In 1643 four colonies created the New England Confederation (almost totally Puritan)
  • The colonies became semiautonomous entities
  • When Charles II was restored in 1660 he was shocked how little power he had in the colonies
  • Opposition Grows
  • In 1686 the Dominion of New England (CT, RI, MB, PL) was created to bolster defenses against the Indians. 1688 NY and NJ added
  • Andros:a) prohibits town meetingsb) restricts courtsc) taxed people without their consentd) revoked land titles
  • All of this happened while the Glorious Revolution (1688) was taking place in England
  • British monarch loses power – Parl
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