The Crusades 1096-1291

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The Crusades 1096-1291. Fight God’s war and you will conquer. Fight the Lord’s battle and you will be saved. Slogan used to motivate Crusaders. Historical Context…. Power of the Pope increased because of Schism of 1054 & Lay investiture Byzantine Empire weakened by Turks
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The Crusades1096-1291Fight God’s war and you will conquer. Fight the Lord’s battle and you will be saved.Slogan used to motivate CrusadersHistorical Context….
  • Power of the Pope increased because of Schism of 1054 &
  • Lay investiture
  • Byzantine Empire weakened by Turks
  • Jerusalem occupied by Turks
  • Rumors of pilgrimages to Jerusalem became dangerous
  • In 1095, Pope Urban II calls for a holy war against the infidelsGoals of the CrusadesJoining the Crusades
  • Required participants to swear a vow in return for an indulgence, which removed the penalties for any confessed sins
  • Offered material gains
  • Immunity from lawsuits
  • Forgiveness of any debts
  • Economic opportunities for all social classes
  • First Crusade
  • Goal: Capture Jerusalem
  • Outcomes: Captured Jerusalem
  • Established Latin States of Crusaders
  • Latin States ruled by noblesSecond Crusade
  • Goal: King of France and Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor led Crusaders to regain Latin state of Edessa
  • Outcome: Monarchs retreated
  • After the Turks conquer Jerusalem
  • Third Crusade: King’s Crusade
  • Goal: Recapture Jerusalem
  • Led by monarchs
  • Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, King Phillip of France, Richard the Lion-Hearted of England
  • Outcomes:
  • Barbarossa drowns, Phillips deserts
  • Richard agrees to truce where Christian pilgrims could visit Jerusalem
  • Pope, unsatisfied, called for 4th crusade
  • Rivals King Phillip and Richard the Lion-Heartedfourth Crusade
  • Goal: Capture Jerusalem
  • Not supported by monarchs
  • Poorly funded
  • Outcomes: Knights attack and loot Constantinople
  • Further weakens the Byzantine Empire
  • Outcomes of the CrusadesHow did the Crusades change medieval society?
  • Read through the results of the Crusades
  • Then summarize the results of the Crusades by adding the major political, economic, religious, social and intellectual changes on your chart
  • Results…
  • Authority of Church questioned
  • Feudal lords power decreased when peasants don’t want to return to manors
  • Kings power increased as feudalism declined
  • Trade increased when Crusaders bring back goods
  • Towns start to replace manors
  • Italian port cities like Venice prospered
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