The formation , Mining, and use of Minerals

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Chapter 1 Section3. The formation , Mining, and use of Minerals. Environments of mineral formation. Evaporating salt water Limestone. Salt water dries up minerals such as gypsum and halite are left and they crystallize.
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Chapter 1 Section3The formation , Mining, and use of MineralsEnvironments of mineral formation
  • Evaporating salt water
  • Limestone
  • Salt water dries up minerals such as gypsum and halite are left and they crystallize.
  • Surface water and ground water carry dissolved minerals which they crystallize EX. Calcite, dolomite
  • Cont.
  • Hot-water Solutions
  • Groundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma. It reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid which crystallize out of the hot fluid to form new minerals. EX.Gold, copper, sulfur, pyrite, and galenaCont
  • Metamorphic rock
  • When changes in pressure,temperature, or chemical makeup alter a rock, metamorphism takesplace. Minerals that form inmetamorphic rock include calcite,garnet, graphite, hematite,magnetite, mica, and talc.Cont.
  • Pegmatites
  • As magma movesupward, it can form teardrop-shapedbodies called pegmatites. The mineralcrystals in pegmatites become extremely large,Ex. topaz and tourmaline,Cont
  • Plutons
  • As magma rises upward throughthe crust, it sometimes stops movingbefore it reaches the surface and coolsslowly, forming millions of mineralcrystals. Eventually solidifi es to form a pluton. EX.Mica,feldspar, magnetite, and quartzMining
  • Ore
  • A natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined for profit
  • Surface Mines
  • Open pit Mines
  • Quarrie
  • Used to remove large , near surface deposits
  • Mined downward layer by layer
  • Open pit mines used to mine building stone, crushed rock and gravel
  • Subsurface Mining
  • Subsurface Mining
  • Passages dug into the earth to reach the ore
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