The Marketing Research Process Chapter 3 Audhesh Paswan, Ph.D.

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The Marketing Research Process Chapter 3 Audhesh Paswan, Ph.D. INFORMATION. REDUCES UNCERTAINTY HELPS FOCUS DECISION MAKING. Marketing Research can be . . . . Accurate. Fast. Inexpensive. Pick two! Can’t have three at the same time!. STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS.
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The Marketing Research ProcessChapter 3Audhesh Paswan, Ph.D.INFORMATION
  • REDUCES UNCERTAINTY
  • HELPS FOCUS DECISION MAKING
  • Marketing Research can be . . . AccurateFastInexpensivePick two! Can’t have three at the same time!STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS
  • PROBLEM DISCOVERY AND PROBLEM DEFINITION
  • RESEARCH DESIGN
  • SAMPLING
  • DATA GATHERING
  • DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND REPORT
  • Establishing the need for marketing research.1
  • Is it needed?
  • May not be needed:
  • information may already be available
  • not enough time to do study
  • not enough money
  • costs may outweigh value of research
  • Marketing Research
  • Marketing Research Types
  • Problem IdentificationProblem-Solving* Market Potential Research* Market Share Research* Image Research* Market Characteristics* Sales Analyses Research* Forecasting Research* Business Trend Research* Segmentation Research* Product Research* Pricing Research* Promotion Research* Distribution ResearchDefine the problem2
  • Most important part - everything else is based upon this!
  • May do “exploratory research” to help define the problem
  • Think of yourself as a “marketing doctor”
  • make sure you can tell the symptoms from the problem..
  • specify the symptoms > itemizing the possible causes of the symptoms > listing the reasonable alternative course of action.
  • Defining the Problem Results in Clear Cut Research ObjectivesSymptom DetectionExploratory Research(Optional)Analysis of the SituationProblem DefinitionStatement of Research Objectives“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution”Albert EinsteinThe Process of Problem DefinitionIsolate andidentify theproblems,not thesymptoms.Determinethe unitof analysisUnderstandthebackgroundof theproblem.Ascertainthedecisionmaker’sobjectives.State theresearchquestionsandresearchobjectives.DeterminetherelevantvariablesEstablish research objectives.3
  • What information is needed to solve the problem?
  • Set objectives associated with this information.
  • I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are what, and why, and when, and how, and where and who.” --Rudyard KiplingDetermine research design4
  • Exploratory Research
  • unstructured, informal, and sometimes intuitive
  • Descriptive Research
  • very common in marketing research
  • descriptive in nature
  • involves communication and/or observation for data collection
  • lends itself to statistical analysis
  • 4Determine research design
  • Causal Research
  • establish cause and effect relationship
  • problem: multiple causes and effects
  • problem: hard to isolate
  • involves experiments
  • e.g., pretest, posttest, control groups
  • EducationIncomeHappinessResearch Design. . 4ExploratoryDescriptiveCausalDEGREE OF PROBLEM DEFINITIONExploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research(Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?”possible situationResearch Design - I4
  • Exploratory Research:
  • Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights.Characteristics: Flexible, Versatile, Unstructured, Often the Front End of total Research Design, Small Non-representative Sample, Analyses typically qualitative.Findings: Tentative, typically followed by further exploratory, descriptive or causal research.Methods: Literature Search, Focus Groups, Experience Surveys, Pilot Surveys, Expert Interviews, Case Studies, Reliance on Secondary Data. Research Design - II4
  • Descriptive Research:
  • Objective: Describe Market Characteristics or Functions, Test Specific Hypotheses.Characteristics: Prior Formulation of Hypotheses, Preplanned, Formal and Structured Design, Information needed is predefined, Sample is Large and Representative, Data Analyses typically Quantitative.Findings: Conclusive, used as input into Decision Making.Methods: Surveys, Panels and Observation (Typically Primary Data).Research Design - III4
  • Causal Research:
  • Objective: Determine Cause and Effect Relationship, Test Specific Hypotheses.Characteristics: Manipulation of Independent Variables, and Control of Other Mediating Variables. Prior Formulation of Hypotheses, Preplanned, Formal and Structured Design, Information needed is predefined, Sample Representative, Data Analyses typically Quantitative.Findings: Conclusive, used as input into Decision Making.Methods: Experiments (Typically Primary Data) IDENTIFYING CAUSALITY A causal relationship is impossible to prove. Evidence of causality: 1. The appropriate causal order of events 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena vary together 3. An absence of alternative plausible explanations If you do not know where you are going,any road will take you there.RESEARCH DESIGN
  • MASTER PLAN
  • FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
  • SPECIFIES METHODS AND PROCEDURES
  • 5Identify information types and sources
  • Two types of information:
  • Secondary data
  • information already collected for some other purpose
  • internal or external
  • typically used in exploratory research
  • some key problems??
  • Primary data
  • information collected to specifically answer the problem
  • observation or communication method
  • 5Information - Data
  • Data - Known facts or things used as basis for inference; information; material to be processed and stored.
  • Information - what is told, knowledge, news, charge or accusation.
  • InformationData5Information Sources
  • Four major sources.
  • IntuitionExperienceDecision MakingProcessAuthorityResearchSecondaryPrimaryAnecdotesExperienceCase studiesOpinions, etc.Focus groupsInterviewsprojection techniques, etc.CensusSyndicated dataJournalsMagazines, etc.SurveysObservationsExperimentsTests, etc.Marketing Research Data5
  • Secondary vs Primary
  • Qualitative vs Quantitative
  • Internal vs External
  • QualitativeQuantitativeSecondaryDataPrimary dataDescriptiveSurvey dataObservation ExperimentMarketing Research Data5
  • Marketing Research Data
  • Qualitative DataQuantitative dataCausalDetermine methods of accessing data6
  • Depends on what kind of data is needed
  • Methods different for secondary data collection than for primary data collection, e.g.,
  • Secondary data - library, internet, buy syndicated data, CD-ROM, etc.
  • Primary data - mail, telephone, mall intercept, door-to-door, etc.
  • Data Collection
  • Qualitative Research
  • Objective: To gain understanding of the underlying reasons and motives (Exploratory stage).Sample: Small number, nonrepresentative.Method: Unstructured.Analyses: Nonstatistical.Outcome: Develop initial understanding.Data Collection
  • Quantitative Research
  • Objective: To quantify the data, and generalize the results to the population of interest.Sample: Large numbers, Representative.Method: Structured.Analyses: Statistical.Outcome: Recommend a final course of action.Data Collection - Methods
  • Qualitative Data
  • Direct(Nondisguised)Indirect(Disguised)Focus GroupsDepth InterviewsProjective TechniquesAssociationCompletionConstructionExpressiveData Collection - Methods
  • Quantitative/ Primary Data
  • CommunicationVersatilitySpeedCostObservationObjectivityAccuracyRelevant for: Demographics, Socioeconomic, Psychological/Lifestyle Characteristics; Attitudes, Opinions, Awareness, Knowledge, Intentions, Motivations, and Behavior.Data Collection - Methods
  • Communication or Surveys
  • PersonalTelephoneMailIn HomeMall InterceptCAPITraditionalTelephoneMailInterviewCATIMail panelData Collection Methods - ComparisonCriteria Telephone Personal MailFlexibility of data collection M H LDiversity of Questions L H MUse of physical stimuli L H MQuantity of data L H/M M/HResponse rate M H L/MSpeed H M/H LCost M M/H LInterviewer bias M H NoSample control M/H M/H L/MField force control M L/M HSensitive Information H L HL=Low, H=High, M=Medium.Data Collection - Methods
  • Observation
  • AuditPersonal ObservationContentAnalysesMechanicalObservationTraceAnalysesData Collection - Methods
  • Experiments - Test Marketing.
  • Simulated, Controlled, Standard, and National Rollout.
  • Factor Laboratory FieldEnvironment Artificial RealisticControl High LowReactive Error High LowDemand Artifact High LowInternal Validity High LowExternal Validity Low HighTime Short LongNumber of Units Small LargeImplementation Ease High LowCost Low HighDesign data collection forms7
  • Depends on type of research being conducted
  • Some key issues:
  • Structured or unstructured
  • Disguised or undisguised
  • Number of questions.
  • Wording and sequencing of questions.
  • Types of VariablesCategorical Continuous DependentIndependentMeasurement Instrument
  • Communication methods typically use a questionnaire as the instrument.
  • The questionnaire must motivate the respondents to cooperate, become involved, and provide complete and accurate answers.
  • Measurement Instrument1. Specify the information needed2. Type of interviewing method3. Content of individual questions4. Design the questions to overcome inability and unwillingness5. Decide on the question structure6. Determine the question wording7. Arrange the questions in proper order8. Identify the form and layout9. Reproduce the questionnaire10. Eliminate bugs by pretesting.Measurement Instruments
  • Marketers want to measure:
  • Demographics/Socioeconomic CharacteristicsPsychographics and LifestylesPersonalityMotivationConsumer knowledge regarding Product - Awareness, Attribute and Price. Purchase - Where and When of purchase. Usage - Usage operations and situations.Past Behavior,Attitudes and Opinions,Behavioral Intentions, etc.Measurement Scales1. Nominal - identify and classify (Sex, user-nonuser, etc.; Descriptive - percentage and mode; Inferential - Chi-square, binomial tests)2. Ordinal - relative position but not magnitude of difference(Quality/ preference ranking, market position, etc.; Descriptive - %, median; Inferential - Rank-order Correlation, Friedman ANOVA)Measurement Scales3. Interval - differences, arbitrary zero point.(Temp, attitudes, opinions, index numbers, etc.; Descriptive - range, mean, standard deviation; Inferential - Correlation, t-tests, ANOVA, regression, and multivariate analyses).4. Ratio - fixed zero point, ratios.(Length, weight, age, income, sales, market share, etc.; Descriptive - geometric & harmonic mean; Inferential - Coefficient of variation)Measurement Scales
  • Attitudes, Opinions , Preferences and Perceptions.
  • “When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it.” Lord Kelvin.
  • Scales should be evaluated for reliability and validity.
  • Measurement Scales
  • Operationalization of scales for measuring Attitudes, Opinions , Preferences and Perceptions.
  • Usually an adaptation of Interval scale.
  • 1. Continuous rating scale - mark on a continuous line.2. Itemized Rating Scale, e.g.,Likert Scale - five point (Strongly agree to Strongly disagree) scale.Semantic differential scale - seven point scales with bipolar labels.Staple scale - Unipolar ten-point scale, -5 to +5, without a neutralDetermine sample plan and size8
  • Who are you going to sample -respondent?
  • How many are you going to sample - sample size?
  • Depends upon
  • Time
  • Money
  • Response rate
  • Type of data collection form
  • Some key terms - sample elements, sample frame, sampling plans, sample size.
  • SAMPLING
  • SUBSET OF POPULATION
  • WHO IS TO BE SAMPLED
  • HOW LARGE A SAMPLE
  • HOW WILL SAMPLE UNITS BE SELECTED
  • Sampling
  • Sampling Techniques:
  • 1. Nonprobability: Convenience, Judgmental, Quota, and Snowball Sampling. 2. Probability: Simple, Systematic, Stratified (Proportionate, Disproportionate), Cluster (One-stage, Two-stage), and Others. Collect data9
  • Trained interviewers
  • Questionnaires
  • Data collection companies
  • Avoid non-sampling errors
  • Analyze data10
  • Give meaning to raw data - interpretation
  • Involves - data cleaning, coding, tabulation, cross-tabulation, statistical tests, & interpretation.
  • Descriptive statistics - frequencies, mean, median, mode, SD, etc.
  • Statistical analysis
  • tests of association - cross tabs, correlation, regression, etc.
  • Test of difference - t-test, f-test, ANOVA etc.
  • Presentation
  • HYPOTHESIS
  • AN UNPROVEN PROPOSITION
  • A POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM
  • GUESS
  • Data Analyses
  • Preliminary data analyses plan.
  • Questionnaire checking.
  • Editing (field and office).
  • Coding.
  • Transcribing.
  • Data cleaning.
  • Statistical adjustments.
  • Selecting a data analyses strategy.
  • Data Analyses
  • Descriptive statistics:
  • 1. Frequencies (simple count). 2. Mean (average), median (50% point), mode (most frequent occurrence). 3. Standard deviation (Sq. root of variance), variance (mean squared deviation from). 4. Skewness (quirks in data).Data Analyses
  • Two basic tests of relationships:
  • 1. Tests of Association.e.g., is purchase behavior related with (or dependent on) income or gender.2. Tests of Differences.e.g., do men differ from women in the way they buy food, cloths, shoes, or the way they view life, ortheir readership or viewership habits etc.Data Analyses
  • Tests of Association.
  • Cross Tabulation (Chi Square),Correlations and Regressions,ANOVA etc.Data Analyses
  • Tests of Differences.
  • T-tests, ANOVA, Discriminant etc.Data Analyses
  • Advanced Multivariate Techniques.
  • Some examples:ANOVA, MANOVA, Multiple Regressions;Factor Analyses, Cluster Analyses, Discriminant Analyses; Multidimensional Scaling;Conjoint Analysis;Structural (Causal) Modeling.Prepare and present final research report11
  • Communicate study results to client
  • Importance cannot be underestimated!
  • Determine exactly how information should be presented - oral versus written.
  • Some tools for presenting data and results:
  • frequency tables
  • charts and graphs
  • mean tables, etc.
  • RESEARCH PROPOSAL
  • A WRITTEN STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN THAT INCLUDES A STATEMENT EXPLAINING THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.
  • DETAILED OUTLINE OF PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR METHODOLOGY
  • Related Search
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