Topic 3: How do you spell relief?

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Topic 3: How do you spell relief? . Unit 3 – Environmental Chemistry. Acids Blue litmus to red pH < 7 High conductivity Taste sour Neutralize bases Reactive with active metals eg . Zn or Mg to form H 2 (g). Bases Red litmus to blue pH > 7
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Topic 3: How do you spell relief? Unit 3 – Environmental Chemistry
  • Acids
  • Blue litmus to red
  • pH < 7
  • High conductivity
  • Taste sour
  • Neutralize bases
  • Reactive with active metals eg. Zn or Mg to form H2 (g)
  • Bases
  • Red litmus to blue
  • pH > 7
  • High conductivity
  • Taste bitter
  • Neutralize acids
  • Feels slippery
  • Ionic compounds
  • Acids and Bases can be defined by their properties (operational definition)
  • Sec. 6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases The pH scale
  • Indicators
  • Substances that change color when the acidity changes
  • Synthetic dyes, plant compounds
  • When changing from its acid form to its basic form it will be a blend of its 2 colors.
  • Eg. Litmus at pH < 6 is red pH > 8 is blue pH 6-8 is purple
  • Acid – Base Indicators
  • pH test strips
  • These are papers with a combo of indicators to give a color range that matches a pH range.
  • Using Indicators
  • Digital pH meters can give an accurate pH.
  • pH meters
  • The reaction between an acid and a base
  • Acid + Base Salt + Water
  • We often want to control acid effects:
  • Acid precipitation causes buildings/statues to corrode
  • It is caused by pollution reacting with water in the air.
  • Soil conditions change and plants can’t grow properly
  • Fish die in polluted waters
  • Neutralization Reaction
  • A neutralization reaction that uses lime (calcium carbonate – CaCO3)
  • It’s released by aircraft into a lake where it reacts with acid and the acid gets neutralized.
  • Liming
  • Emissions are the pollutants from smokestacks and vehicle exhaust.
  • For vehicle exhaust cars are equipped with Catalytic Converters.
  • They help hydrocarbons combust better and release less pollution.
  • Controlling Emissions Catalytic Converter exhaust. Scrubber exhaust.
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