Toxic Algae: A Review P lus N otes on Prymnesium parvum

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Toxic Algae: A Review P lus N otes on Prymnesium parvum. Jacob Butler. Overview. Algal communities and diversity Trends in succession Algal toxins and toxin production Allelopathy and allelochemicals Toxic algae found in AZ Consequences of toxicity Prymnesium parvum notes and research.
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Toxic Algae: A Review Plus Notes on Prymnesium parvum Jacob Butler Overview
  • Algal communities and diversity
  • Trends in succession
  • Algal toxins and toxin production
  • Allelopathy and allelochemicals
  • Toxic algae found in AZ
  • Consequences of toxicity
  • Prymnesium parvum notes and research
  • Algal Communities and Diversity
  • Often quite diverse
  • Many factors affect succession
  • Temperature, pH, light, nutrient avaliability
  • Seasonal trends, but not always
  • Deviations From Succession Patterns
  • Atypical weather
  • Pollutants
  • Excess nutrients
  • And… Algal Toxins and Succession
  • Inhibit growth of some taxa, eliminate others
  • Aids in succession to dominant status
  • Can cause formation of blooms
  • Because of the advantage provided, toxic secondary metabolite production seen many algae
  • Unintentional consequences
  • Toxicity to humans, other organisms
  • Taste, odor, aesthetic issues
  • Allelopathy
  • Any positive or negative effect on growth or development of biological, agricultural systems
  • Frequent occurrence in aquatic ecosystems
  • Ease of transmission
  • Low cost
  • Chemical warfare among algal species
  • Allelochemicals Allelochemicals Continued From Legrand et al. 2003 (42) Only the beginning…
  • Many algal toxins difficult to detect, let alone quantify
  • Production of toxins highly variable
  • Exact mechanisms, triggers largely unknown
  • Results of toxin production en masse often all that is seen.
  • Fish Kills Toxic Algae in the Salt River Reservoirs
  • Anabaena
  • Cylindrospermopsis
  • Aphanizomenon
  • Lyngbya
  • Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Prymnesium parvum Capable of producing Anatoxin-A, Saxitoxin, Cylindrospermopsin, Microcystin, Prymnesins
  • Consequences of Algal Toxins
  • Human health and water quality issues
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Tastes, odors
  • Collection in reservoirs, canals
  • Environmental costs and alteration
  • Environmental Alteration
  • Corbicula die offs
  • Filter feeders gone, bloom susceptibility
  • Food web dynamics
  • Less, different species recover
  • Prymnesium Parvum
  • Growth and toxicity of P. parvum likely effected by other algae present in system
  • Cyanobacteria, Dinoflagellates most resistant
  • Likely others follow suit
  • Interactions and Connectivity Understanding Toxic Algae
  • Secondary metabolites of P. parvum (prymnesins), vs those produced by others (Cyanobacteria, Dinoflagellates, etc)
  • Tied to competition with one another, plus environmental factors
  • Connecting the Dots
  • Seasonal monitoring
  • Documentation of assemblage shifts
  • Generation of history/database for comparison
  • Detection of algal toxins
  • Site specificity
  • No succession model works everywhere
  • Observation of potentially toxic/allelopathic algae
  • Notes on conditions and assemblage present in field before blooms and toxic events invaluable
  • Inferences for laboratory studies
  • Research
  • Laboratory experiments critical to identify and validate triggers and allelopathic interactions among algal species
  • Highly complex, even when limited in number of species cultured
  • Possible to find strains which are non-toxic, but suppress growth or toxin production of undesirables
  • Findings may be used to guide management actions in affected or vulnerable water bodies.
  • Conclusion
  • Algal toxins are potent and capable of massive impacts to both environments and our quality of life
  • Allelopathy in phytoplankton is complex, but with diligent and thorough research it can be understood in much greater detail
  • Questions?
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