Trauma Kepala

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ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN KRITIS TRAUMA KEPALA Disusun untuk Memenuhi Tugas Mata Kuliah Keperawatan Kritis DI SUSUN OLEH : KELOMPOK 2 1. Tiur Trihastutik 131611123055 2. Reny Tjahja Hidayati 131611123056 3. Erna Eka Wulansari 131611123
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  ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN KRITISTRAUMA KEPALA Disusun untuk Memenuhi Tugas Mata Kuliah Keperawatan KritisDI SUSUN OLEH :KELOMPOK 2 !Tiur Trihastutik #2 $%%2!&en' T(ah(a Hi)a'ati #2 $%# !Erna Eka *ulansari  #2 $%+,!Intan -ah'anti Sugiant. #2 $%/%!Enn' Selawati 0.angmanalu #2 $%1#!&isa Ma'a Pr.3.an)ini #2 $#$+!4.hanes Peman)i D.ka #2 $# PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN NERSFAKULTAS KEPERAWATAN UNIVERSITAS AIRLANGGASURABAYA2017 Kata pengantar  Pu(i )an s'ukur kami sampaikan ke ha)irat Tuhan 4ang Maha Esa 5 karena 3erkat kemurahan6N'amakalah ini )apat kami selesaikan sesuai 'ang )iharapkan! Dalam makalah ini kami mem3ahas tentang7 8suhan Keperawatan Pa)a Sistem Pers'ara9an : -e)era Kepala!   Makalah ini )i3uat )alam rangka memper)alam pemahaman mengenai pen'akit sistemPers'ara9an! Serta mengetahui tentang (alan pen'akit )ari pen'akit pa)a sistem Pers'ara9an! i  Makalah ini )isusun untuk memenuhi mata kuliah keperawatan kritis5 pa)a met.)e pem3ela(arantut.rial!Ti)ak lupa kami menguapkan 3an'ak terima kasih kepa)a semua pihak 'ang mem3antuterselesaikann'a makalah ini! Makalah ini menurut kami masih (auh )ari kata sempurna! Olehkarena itu5 kritik )an saran 'ang mem3angun sangat kami 3utuhkan! Sem.ga makalah ini 3erman9aat untuk semua 'ang mem3aan'a!Sura3a'a5 Maret 2$+Penulis5Kel.mp.k II DAFTAR ISI -.er !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!iKata Pengantar!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!iiDa9tar Isi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!iii0a3 I Pen)ahuluan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Latar 0elakang !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2 &umusan Masalah !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2! Tu(uan Penulisan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 0a3 II Tin(auan Pustaka ................................................................................................................. ,2!Trauma kepala!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!, ii  2!!8nat.mi ;isi.l.gi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!,2!!2De9inisi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$2!! Eti.l.gi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$2!!,Pat.9isi.l.gi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!22!!%*O-!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!/2!!#Klasi9ikasi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2$2!!+Mani9estasi Klinis!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2,2!!/Pemeriksaan Diagn.stik!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2#2!!1Penatalaksanaan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!212!!$Pr.gn.sis!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12!!K.mplikasi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12!2 K.nsep 8suhan Keperawatan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!,$080 III TIN<8U8N K8SUS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!,+ !Pengka(ian,+!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !2Diagn.sa Keperawatan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%, ! Intereensi Keperawatan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%%080 I= PENUTUP !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%+,!Kesimpulan !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%+,!2Saran!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%/D8;T8& PUST8K8 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%1 iii  BAB IPENDAHULUAN1.1.Latar Bea!a # -e)era kepala masih merupakan permasalahan kesehatan gl.3al se3agai pen'e3a3kematian5 )isa3ilitas5 )an )e9isit mental! -e)era kepala men(a)i pen'e3a3 utamakematian )isa3ilitas pa)a usia mu)a! Pen)erita e)era kepala seringkali mengalamie)ema sere3ri 'aitu akumulasi kele3ihan airan )i intraseluler atau ekstraseluler ruang.tak atau per)arahan intrakranial 'ang mengaki3atkan meningkatn'a tekanan intrakranial! >Kumar5 2$ ?!-e)era kepala a)alah suatu gangguan traumatik )ari 9ungsi .tak 'ang )isertai atautanpa )isertai per)arahan interstiil )alam su3tansi .tak tanpa )iikuti terputusn'ak.ntinuitas .tak >Pa)ila5 2$2?! -e)era kepala merupakan pen'e3a3 utama m.rtalitas )an)isa3ilitas)an masalah s.si.l ek.n.mi )i In)ia )an negara 3erkem3ang! Orang 'angmengalami e)era kepala )iperkirakan 5%62 (uta setiap tahun >@urura(5 K.lluri5-han)ram.uli5 et al. 5 2$$%?! -e)era kepala )i 8merika )iperkirakan ter(a)i 5%# (utakasus5 21$!$$$ pasien )irawat inap )an %!$$$ pasien meninggal )unia pa)a tahun 2$$ >0r.wn5 Langl.is5 Th.mas5 et al. 5 2$$#?!-e)era kepala akan terus men(a)i masalah 'ang sangat 3esar meskipun pela'ananme)is su)ah sangat ma(u pa)a a3a) 2 >Per).ssi5 2$$#?! Sepuluh pen'e3a3 kematianutama )i )unia salah satun'a karena keelakaan (alan ra'a )an )iperkirakan akan men(a)itiga pen'e3a3 utama keaatan seumur hi)up! Keelakaan (alan ra'a merupakan masalahkesehatan 'ang sangat 3esar )i3er3agai 3elahan )unia 'aitu sekitar ,%A 3erasal )ari pasien trauma 'ang rawat inap )i rumah sakit! -e)era kepala )i)unia )iperkirakanse3an'ak 52 (uta (iwa n'awa mela'ang setiap tahunn'a se3agai aki3at keelakaan 3erm.t.r5 )iperkirakan sekitar $5 6 $5%A mengalami e)era kepala >=i.la5 Mihael5Th.mps.n5 2$?!-e)era kepala menakup trauma pa)a kulit kepala5 tengk.rak > cranium  )an tulangwa(ah?5 atau .tak! Keparahan e)era 3erhu3ungan )engan tingkat kerusakan awal .tak )an pat.l.gi sekun)er 'ang terkait >Stillwell B Susan5 2$?! -e)era kepala 3erat a)alahgangguan traumati .tak 'ang )isertai atau tanpa )isertai per)arahan intertisial )alamsu3stansi tanpa )iikuti terputusn'a k.ntinuitas .tak )itan)ai )engan nilai @-S 6/>k.ma?5 penurunan )era(at kesa)aran seara pr.gresi95 kehilangan kesa)aran atau 1
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