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2beingfit.com Sunflower
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  Scientific names   Common names   Helianthus annuus   Girasol (Span.)    Xiang ri kui (Chin.)   Mirasol (Tag., Span.)   Sun flower (Engl.)   Tournesol (France)   Sonnemblumen (Germ.)   Zhang ju (Chin.)   Other vernacular names    ARABIC: Abbad esh shams.   DANISH: Solsikke.   DUTCH: Zonnebloem.    ESTONIAN: Harilik päevalill, Päevalill.   FINNISH: Auringonkukka, Auringon ruusu, Isoauringonkukka.   FRENCH: Soleil, Tournesol.   GERMAN: Echte Sonnenblume, Sonnenblume.   HUNGARIAN: Napraforgó.   ITALIAN: Corona del sole, Girasole.   JAPANESE: Himawari, Koujitsuki.   KOREAN : Hae ba ra gi.   NORWEGIAN: Solsikke, Solvendel.   POLISH: Slonecznik roczny, Slonecznik zwyczajny.   RUSSIAN: Podsolnechnik. Podsolnechnik maslichnyi.   SLOVENIAN: Navadna sonènica.   SWEDISH: Solros.   TURKISH: Gune bakan   Sunflower name derives from the Greek work helios, meaning sun; and anthos, for flower. Sunflower is a coarse, stout and erect annual plant, up to 1 to 3 meters high. Stems are straight, rarely  branched. Leaves are opposite at the lower part of the stem, alternate above, ovate, rough, hairy, with toothed margins, long-stalked, 10 to 25 centimeters long. Lower leaves are somewhat heart-shaped. Flower heads are solitary or in clusters, up to 40 centimeters across. Disk flowers are yellow to brown,  with tubular, 5-limbed corolla. Ray flowers are yellow and spreading. Involucral bracts are ovate or oblong. Distribution  - Cultivated for ornamental purposes and for its seeds. - Profuse seasonal growth in certain places, like the Mountain Province. - Planted in all warm countries. Constituents  - Plant contains an oleic acid and triacyl glycerol, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, fixed oils, phenolics. - Oil contains 44-72% linoleic acid. - Leaves contain a glucoside, C11H19N204. - Flowers contain quercimeritrin, C21H20O12, a monoglucoside of quercetin; anthocyanin; and abundant amount of cholin and betain. - Seeds contain 45 to 48 percent fixed oil. Properties  - Seed considered diuretic and expectorant. - Seeds and flowers considered febrifuge and stomachic. - Also considered as aphrodisiac, emollient, anti-malarial and anti-cancer. Parts used    Seeds, flowers, roots, bark. Uses   Edible  - Flower, seed, stem. - Seeds, raw or cooked; difficult to use because of small size. - Roasted seed used as coffee or chocolate substitute. - The oil is low in cholesterol, considered olive-oil quality and used for salads and cooking. - Disk of the flower-head can be eaten like an artichoke. Folkloric traditional medicinal benefits and uses of sunflower - Boiled flower heads once used by Amerindians for pulmonary affections. - Tea from flowers, dried or fresh leaves is used for facilitating expectoration, relieving coughs, colds. - For whooping cough, an infusion of the brown seeds, drink the tea 4 to 5 times daily. - For asthma, an infusion of the leaves. - Decoction of seeds used as diuretic and expectorant; used for bronchial and pulmonary affections, coughs and colds. - An infusion of oven-browned seeds used for whooping cough. - For diabetes, tea from decocted roots (10 gms to half a glass of water). - When flowers and leaves are mixed with oil, let stand for 5-10 days before using. - Seeds are diuretic, used to increase the flow of urine. - The bark (boiled) and flowers (steeped) used for fevers, 3- 4 tbsp 3-4 times daily. - Poultice of leaves used for sores, insect bites and snake bites. - Elsewhere, flower decoction used for malaria and lung problems. - Tincture of flowers and leaves mixed with balsamics used for bronchiectasis. - In China, seeds used for dysentery. - Tincture prepared from seeds, rectified with wine, used for fevers and ague, in lieu of quinine. - In Brazil, leaves used as substitute for Datura stramonium for treatment of asthma. - Infusion of roots used for diabetes. - Tincture of bark and flowers employed for intermittent fevers resistent to quinine. Other uses    - A purple dye is obtained from some varieties. - Outer part of the stem has a little fiber, when freed from the pith can be made into paper. - Used for making blotting paper. - Dried stems and empty seed receptacles make excellent kindling. - Seeds are used for bird food. - Oil mixed with a drying oil (as linseed) to make soap, candles, varnishes, paint, etc. Scientific studies on the benefits and uses of sunflower ã    Antimicrobial:   Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against some Gram positive, Gram negative and fungi:  Study   showed the methanol extracts of HA showed low activity against B subtilis and pronounced activity against Proteus vulgaris. ã    Antiasthma:   Study   of the aqueous extract of Helianthus annuus seed on an in vivo anti-asthmatic model showed a decrease of CD4 cells, IL-4/IL-13 expression and IgE secretion levels in the lung. Results suggest the HAS extract has considerable potential in reducing asthma-like symptoms in a mouse model and suggests further purification of the extract to determine the factors responsible for antiasthmatic activity. ã    Allergenic Potential / Occupational Allergy:   Study   showed that sunflower pollen has high allergenic potential, especially with close contact, as in  workplace exposure which can result in impairment of lung function. ã    Antioxidant:   Study   showed high antioxidant capacity in the aqueous extract of the sunflower seed and suggests a potential for preventing in vivo oxidative reactions involved in diseases, such as cancer. ã    Antiglycative / Antioxidant / Cynarin / Diabetes Benefits:  In a  study   of four edible sprouts in Chinese markets, the sunflower sprout H. annuus exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects against the formation of glycation end products. The antioxidant capacity of H. annuus was much stronger than the other samples. Study yielded cynarin (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), an active ingredient with a novel function of intervening against glycooxidation. Results suggest sunflower sprouts of H. annuus may have benefits as food supplement in diabetic patients. ã    Antimicrobial / Mediated Gold Nanoparticles:  Gold nanoparticles have become an important tool in the development of novel biological and chemical processes.  Study   showed H. annuus mediated gold nanoparticles could be an effective antimicrobial agent and present a potential alternative for the development of new antimicrobials for resistance problems. ã  Effect of Caffeine on Growth:  
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