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  11/5/13Galileo (satellite navigation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_(satellite_navigation)1/14 Galileo logo Galileo (satellite navigation) From Wiki pedia, the free encyclopedia Galileo  is a glo bal navigation satellite system (GNSS) currently being built by the Euro pean Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA).The €5 billion pr oject [1]  is named after the Italian astronomer GalileoGalilei. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide a high-precision positioning system upon which European nations can rely, independentlyfrom the Russian GLONASS, US GPS, Indian IRNSS system, andChinese Compass systems, which can be disabled in times of war or conflict. [2] When in operation, it will use two ground operations centres near Munichin Germany and in Fucino in Italy. In December 2010, EU ministers inBrussels voted Prague in the Czech Republic as the headquarters of theGalileo project.On 21 October 2011, the first two of four operational satellites werelaunched to validate the system. The next two followed on 12 Octo ber 2012, making it possible to test Galileoend-to-end . [3]  Once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed, additional satellites will belaunched to reach Initial Operational Capability (IOC) around mid-decade. Full completion of the 30-satelliteGalileo system (27 operational and three active spares) is expected by 2019. [4] Basic navigation services will be free of charge. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical positionmeasurements within 1-metre precision, and better positioning services at high latitudes than other positioningsystems. As a further feature, Galileo will provide a unique global search and rescue (SAR) function. Satellites will be equipped with a transponder which will relay distress signals from the user's transmitter to the Rescue Co- ordination Centre, which will then initiate the rescue operation. At the same time, the system will  provide a signal to the users, informing them that their situation has been detected and that help is on the way. This latter feature is new and is considered a major upgrade compared to the existing GPS and GLONASS navigation systems, which donot provide feedback to the user. [5]  The use of basic (low-precision) Galileo services will be free and open toeveryone. The high-precision ca pabilities will be available for paying commercial users and for military use. [ citation needed  ] Contents 1 History1.1 Main objectives1.2 Funding1.3 Cooperation with the United States1.4 First experimental satellites: GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B1.5 Funding again, governance issues2 International involvement3 Political implications of Galileo project3.1 Tension with the United States  11/5/13Galileo (satellite navigation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_(satellite_navigation)2/14 3.2 GPS and Galileo4 Final system description4.1 Galileo satellites4.2 Services4.3 The concept5 Satellite system5.1 Galileo satellite test beds: GIOVE5.2 In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites5.3 Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites6 Science projects, coins, satellites' names6.1 Science projects using Galileo6.2 Coins6.3 Satellite names7 See also8 Notes9 References10 Bibliography11 Further reading12 External links12.1 Official websites12.2 Other  History Main objectives In 1999, the different concepts (from Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom) for Galileo were comparedand reduced to one by a joint team of engineers from all four countries. The first stage of the Galileo programmewas agreed upon officially on 26 May 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency.The system is intended primarily for civilian use, unlike the more military-oriented systems of the United States(GPS), Russia (GLONASS), and China (Beidou-1/2, COMPASS). The US reserves the right to limit the signalstrength or precision of GPS, or to shut down public GPS access completely, so that only the US military and itsallies would be able to use it in time of conflict. [6]  The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances. It will be available at its full precision to both civil and military users.Until 2000 the precision of the GPS signal available to non-US-military users was deliberately severely limited by atiming pulse distortion process known as selective availability, a feature removed from the most recent GPSsatellites. Funding The European Commission had some difficulty funding the project's next stage, after several allegedly per annum sales projection graphs for the project were exposed in November 2001 as cumulative projections (which for each year projected, necessarily included all previous years of sales). The attention that was brought to this multi-  11/5/13Galileo (satellite navigation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_(satellite_navigation)3/14  billion euro exponentially growing error in sales forecasts resulted in a general awareness in the Commission andelsewhere that it was unlikely that the program would yield the return on investment that had previously beensuggested to investors and decision-makers. [7] Additionally, following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States Government wrote to the EuropeanUnion opposing the project, arguing that it would end the ability of the United States to shut down satellitenavigation in times of military operations. On 17 January 2002 a spokesman for the project stated that, as a resultof US pressure and economic difficulties, Galileo is almost dead. [8] A few months later, however, the situation changed dramatically. European Union member states decided it wasimportant to have a satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure that the US could not easily turn off in timesof political conflict. [9] The European Union and the European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a reviewin 2003 (which was completed on 26 May 2003). The starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at1.1 billion. The required satellites (the planned number is 30) will be launched between 2011 and 2014 and thesystem will be up and running and under civilian control from 2019. The final cost is estimated at €3 billion,including the infrastructure on Earth, which is to be constructed in 2006 and 2007. The plan was for privatecompanies and investors to invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation, with the EU and ESA dividingthe remaining cost. An encrypted higher-bandwidth Commercial Service  with improved precision would beavailable at an extra cost, with the base Open Service  freely available to anyone with a Galileo-compatiblereceiver. Costs for the project have run 50% over initial estimates. [10] Cooperation with the United States In June 2004, in a signed agreement with the United States, the European Union agreed to switch to a modulationknown as BOC(1,1) (Binary Offset Carrier 1.1) allowing the coexistence of both GPS and Galileo, and the futurecombined use of both systems.The European Union also agreed to address the mutual concerns related to the protection of allied and U.S.national security capabilities. [11] First experimental satellites: GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B The first experimental satellite, GIOVE-A, was launched in 2005 and was followed by a second test satellite,GIOVE-B, launched in 2008. Once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed, additional satelliteswill be launched. On 30 November 2007 the 27 EU transportation ministers involved reached an agreement that itshould be operational by 2013, [12]  but later press releases suggest it was delayed to 2014. [13] Funding again, governance issues Early 2007, the EU had yet to decide how to pay for the system and the project was said to be in deep crisis dueto lack of more public funds. [14]  German Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee was particularly doubtful aboutthe consortium's ability to end the infighting at a time when only one testbed satellite had been successfully launched.   11/5/13Galileo (satellite navigation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_(satellite_navigation)4/14 Although a decision was yet to be reached, on 13 July 2007 [15]  EU countries discussed cutting €548m ($755m,£370m) from the union's competitiveness budget for the following year and shifting some of that cash to other partsof the financing pot, a move that could meet part of the cost of the union's Galileo satellite navigation system.European Union research and development projects could be scrapped to overcome a funding shortfall.In November 2007, it was agreed to reallocate funds from the EU's agriculture and administration budgets [16]  andto soften the tendering process in order to invite more EU companies. [17] In April 2008, the EU transport ministers approved the Galileo Implementation Regulation. This allowed the €3.4bnto be released from the EU's agriculture and administration budgets. [18]  This will allow the issuing of contracts tostart construction of the ground station and the satellites.In June 2009, the European Court of Auditors published a report, pointing out governance issues, substantial delaysand budget overruns that led to project stalling in 2007, leading to further delays and failures. [19] In October 2009, the European Commission cut the number of satellites from 28 to 22, with plans to order theremaining six at a later time. It also announced that the first OS, PRS and SoL signal will be available in 2013 andthe CS and SOL some time later. The current budget for the 2006–2013 period planned for €3.4 billion was alsoconsidered as insufficient. [20]  The think tank Open Europe has estimated the total cost of Galileo from start tocompletion, and then running it over a 20-year period, at a €22.2 billion, which will be borne entirely by taxpayers.Under the srcinal estimates (from 2000) this cost would have been €7.7 billion, of which only €2.6 billion was to be borne by taxpayers and the rest by private investors. [21] In November 2009, a ground station for Galileo was inaugurated near Kourou (French Guiana). [22] The launch of the first four in-orbit validation (IOV) satellites was planned for the second half of 2011, while thelaunch of full operational capability (FOC) satellites is planned to start in late 2012.As of March 2010 it was verified that the budget for Galileo would only be available to provide the 4 IOV and 14FOC satellites by 2014, with no funds currently committed to bring the constellation above this 60% capacity. [23] Paul Verhoef, the then current satellite navigation program manager at the European Commission indicated that thislimited funding would have serious consequences commenting at one point To give you an idea, that would meanthat for three weeks in the year you will not have satellite navigation in reference to the currently proposed 18vehicle constellation.In July 2010 the European Commission estimated further delays and additional costs of the project to grow up to1.5-€1.7 billion and moved the estimated date of completion to 2018. After it's completed, the system will need to be subsidised by governments at €750 million per year. [24]  An additional €1.9 billion was planned to be spent bringing the system up to the full complement of 30 satellites (27 operational + 3 active spares). [10][25] In December 2010 EU ministers in Brussels voted Prague, in the Czech Republic, as the headquarters of theGalileo project. [26]  In January 2011, infrastructure costs up to 2020 were estimated at €5.3 billion. In that samemonth, Wikileaks revealed the opinion of Berry Smutny, the CEO of the German satellite company OHB-System.He is quoted saying that Galileo is a stupid idea that primarily serves French interests . [27]  The BBC understood500 million (£440M) would become available to make the extra purchase, taking Europe's version of GPS from18 operational satellites in the next few years to 24. [28]
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