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  LGA 3101 (ISL WEEK 7 – Article 1) NON-FICTION BOOKS Non-Fiction   is prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects, or events. It is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. This presentation may be accurate or not; that is, it can give either a true or a false account of the subject in question. However, it is generally assumed that the authors of such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of their composition. utobiographies, biographies, essays, reports, letters, memos, and newspaper articles are all types of nonfiction.  Characteristics of Non-iction !. or#s of nonfiction differ from wor#s of fiction in several ways.$.The people, events, places, and ideas presented in nonfiction are real, not invented.%.&onfiction is narrated by an author who is a real person.'.It presents facts, describes true(life experiences, or discusses ideas.).&onfiction is written for a specific audience, or group of readers. In addition, it addresses a clear purpose, or reason for writing. The audience and purpose influence the type of information a writer includes.*.Tone, the author+s attitude toward the subject or reader, is displayed through the writer+s word choice and style. The writer contributes more than information to nonfiction.!. St!le  is the particular way in which a writer uses language. tyle reflects an author+s personality. -actors that contribute to an author+s style include level of formality, use of figurative language, diction or word choice, sentence patterns, and methods of organiation.$. one  is the author+s attitude toward both the subject and readers or listeners. In conversations, you can hear a spea#er+s tone in the way words and phrases are spo#en. hen reading, you can /hear0 tone in an author+s choice  of words and details. The tone of a literary wor# can often be described with a single word such as1  pompous, playful, serious, personal, sarcastic, or friendly   %. #ers$ecti%e  is the viewpoint or opinion an author expresses about the subject, either directly or indirectly. &ias  occurs when a writer ma#es a one(sided presentation 2for example, by ignoring relevant facts or by using emotional language that unfairly sways readers+ or listeners+ feelings3.'. #'r$ose  is the author+s reason for writing. 4ommon purposes are to inform, to persuade, to honor, to entertain, to explain, and to warn. !$es of Non-iction There are four main types, or modes, of nonfiction that are defined by their purposes.!.&arrative nonfiction tells stories of real(life events. 5xamples include autobiographies and memoirs. ome narrative nonfiction is reflective writing, which shares the writer+s thoughts and feelings about a personal experience, an idea, or a concern. 5xamples include reflective essays, personal essays, and journals. $.5xpository nonfiction informs or explains. 5xamples include analytical essays and research reports. %.6ersuasive nonfiction presents reasons and evidence to convince the reader to act or thin# in a certain way. 5xamples include editorials and political speeches.'.7escriptive nonfiction uses details related to the senses to create mental images for the reader. 5xamples include character s#etches and scientific observations.  PICTURE BOOKS The phrase 8picture boo#8 is commonly used to describe a boo#, most often written for children,in which the content, whether a story, an alphabet, or a nursery rhyme, to name just a few possibilities, is conveyed through the use of words and pictures in combination or through pictures alone.  picture boo# differs from an illustrated boo# in that the pictures it contains form an essential part of the structure of the boo#. Illustrations are supplements to a wor# that can stand on its own. 7ue to physical factors in the boo#binding process, picture boo#s are conventionally %$ pages long.6icture boo#s, thus defined, are a relatively new form of boo#, srcinating in the early twentieth century. anda 9ag is widely considered to be a major innovator in the development of picture boo#s. The formula for illustrated boo#s had been to show text on the left page and pictures on the right page, side(by(side, without combining them. In Millions of Cats , 9ag mixed up the order of the pages of pictures and text, combined pictures and text and stretched pictures onto more than one page. Her ideas paved the way for modern authors:illustrators li#e aurice enda#, 7r. euss, and 5ric 4arle. !$es of #ict're &oos&oar &oos <oard boo#s are meant for the youngest readers. <oard boo#s have cardboard pages to withstand wear and tear from little fingers and mouths. ge1 <irth($ years5xamples1 Yummy Yucky by =eslie 6atricelli, Wemberly's Ice-cream Star by >evin Hen#es, What's On My Head   by argaret iller. Conce$t &oos 4oncept boo#s introduce children to a theme such as the alphabet, counting, colors or shapes. They sometimes tell a story or can be as simple as / is for  pple.0 There are more complex concept boo#s li#e the 8iss <indergarten8 series  where each sentence uses a letter of the alphabet to tell a story about being in >indergarten. ge1 suggested for ages $(?5xamples1 Freiht !rain  by 7onald 4rews, Sha es# Sha es# Sha es  b y Tana Hoban, $lantin a %ainbo&   by =ois 5hlert, Eas! *eaers 5asy @eader boo#s are also #nown as <eginning @eaders or 5arly @eaders. They use a limited vocabulary and are structured as chapter boo#s. Text bloc#s are bigger and the images included function more as illustrations than as essential elements in the story. ome representative 5asy @eader imprints are I 4an @ead, @eady to @ead, and 5asy(to(@ead. ge1 '(? years and novice readers5xamples1 ! he Cat in the Hat by 7r. euss, Fro and !oad re Friends by rnold =obel,  !here Is a (ird on Your Head   by o illems Non-iction &on(fiction picture boo#s introduce children to new subjects in a simple way. ge1 %(!$ years5xamples1    Million )ots by ndrew 4lements, (rin on the (irds  by usan toc#dale, Wanari's !rees of $eace  by Aeanette inter  Worless The stories are told completely by the pictures. a#ing up stories to go with the pictures is a perfect pre(literacy activity. ge1 $(!$ years5xamples1 !he Sno&man  by @aymond <riggs, Flotsam   by 7avid iesner, )o You Want !o (e My Friend* by 5ric 4arle. +o, o $ict're oos hel$ a chil rea. The experience of reading with a child creates a bond. haring a story hones a childBs social s#ills and demonstrates the value the adult places on stories and reading. @esearch shows that children should be involved in the process of reading a boo#. The person reading to them should allow the child to tal# about things in the
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