Maine Dispute, Oregon Fever

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Maine Dispute, Oregon Fever. AP U.S 1. British Hate. U.S hatred of Britain during the 19 th century came about periodically and had to be ended by a treaty or war Anti-British feelings were due to several reasons 1- Memories of two previous wars
Maine Dispute, Oregon FeverAP U.S 1British Hate
  • U.S hatred of Britain during the 19th century came about periodically and had to be ended by a treaty or war
  • Anti-British feelings were due to several reasons
  • 1- Memories of two previous wars
  • 2- pro-British federalists had died out, to those Jacksonian Democrats
  • 3- British travelers spoke poorly of American “tobacco spitting, slave auctioneering, lynching, and other unsavory features”
  • War of the pen
  • America at the time was a borrowing nation, Britain a lending nation
  • A provocative incident on the Canadian frontier brought passions to a boil in 1837
  • American steamer, Caroline, was attacked on the Niagara River
  • Only 1 American was killed
  • More tension
  • In 1841 in the Bahamas, British officials offered asylum to 130 Virginia slaves who rebelled and captured American ship the Creole
  • These several events and feelings combined to create a very tension filled century between these two countries
  • Manipulating the Maine Maps
  • Controversy in 1840s involved Maine boundary dispute
  • British wanted to build road from Halifax to Quebec
  • Proposed route ran through disputed territory
  • Tough lumberjacks from Maine and Canada entered disputed land and ugly fights occur
  • Titled “Aroostook War”
  • Britain sent a statesman to the U.S to negotiate and they eventually do
  • Arrangement
  • Basically, they split the difference so Americans retained about 7,000 square miles of the 12,000 total
  • British got less land but won the Halifax-Quebec route
  • Overlooked bonus in the same treaty
  • The British in adjusting the boundary farther west, surrendered 6,500 square miles which was later found to contain priceless Mesabi iron ore of Minnesota
  • Oregon Fever Populates Oregon
  • So called Oregon Country was an enormous wildernes
  • Went from west of the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean
  • North of California to the line of 54-40 the present southern tip of the Alaska panhandle
  • All of parts of the area were at one time claimed by four nations: Spain, Russia, Britain and the U.S
  • Two eventually drop out: Spain got rid of its share in the Florida Treaty of 1819
  • Russia retreated to 54-40 by treaties of 1824 and 25 with U.S and Britain
  • Best colonizing effect of Britain was the Hudson’s Bay Company which traded with Indians of Pacific Northwest for furs
  • U.S presence was strengthened by missionaries and other settlers
  • These missionaries were instrumental in saving Oregon for the United States
  • They stimulated interest in a faraway land that many Americans earlier assumed would not be settled for centuries
  • Scattered American and British pioneers lived peacefully side by side
  • By 1846 about 5,000 Americans had settled south of the Columbia River
  • Some of them “border ruffians” experts with bowie knifes and “revolving pistols”
  • British could only muster about 700 subjects north of Columbia River
  • Curious Fact
  • Only a relatively small segment of Oregon Country was actually controversial by 1845
  • Area in dispute was quad-rangle between the Columbia River on the south and east, 49th parallel on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the west
  • This becomes a big part of the election of 1844 along with several other issues such as Manifest Destiny, Texas, etc.
  • Californios
  • At the conclusion of the Mexican War, there were about 13,000 descendants of Spanish and Mexican conquerors who had once ruled California
  • AKA: Californios
  • Spanish first arrived in California in 1769
  • They outraced Russian traders to bountiful San Franciscan Bay
  • Father Junipero Serra established 21 missions along the coast
  • Indians were encouraged to adapt Christianity and sometimes were forced to become farmers and herders while suffering from disease, etc.
  • Oftentimes these maltreated Indians were part of the lowest rung of the Spanish society
  • Californios were high up on that “ladder”
  • Transfer of Power
  • They were pioneers from the Mexican heartland of New Spain, they traveled to California
  • Mexico emptied its jails and sent settlers to the barely populated north and gave power from the missions over to governmental authorities
  • This program ended the immense power of the missions
  • During the 1830s the power of the missions weakened, and much of their land was given to Californios
  • Californios glory faded when Americans won the War with Mexico
  • They were overwhelmed by a rush of white gold rushers (87,000) after Sutter’s Mill discovery in 1848
  • Starting in 1910 hundreds of thousands of young Mexicans would flock into California and the southwest
  • However the land was much different than years before when the Californio ancestors settled it
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