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“main” — 2009/10/1 — 13:52 — page 691 — #1 Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2009) 81(4): 691-700 (Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences) ISSN 0001-3765 Medicinal plants used by “Passo da Ilha” rural community in the city of Pato Branco, southern Brazil JOSÉ A. MARCHESE1 , LIN C. MING2 , LUCIA DE FRANCESCHI1 , RUBIA C. CAM
  Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2009) 81(4): 691-700(Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences)ISSN Medicinal plants used by “Passo da Ilha” rural communityin the city of Pato Branco, southern Brazil JOSÉ A. MARCHESE 1 , LIN C. MING 2 , LUCIA DE FRANCESCHI 1 , RUBIA C. CAMOCHENA 1 ,GREICE D.R. GOMES 1 , MARCOS V. PALADINI 1 , DIOGO CAPELIN 1 and CRISTINE F. MARCHESE 31 Curso de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Via do Conhecimento, km 185503-390 Pato Branco, PR, Brasil 2 Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780Fazenda Lageado, 18603-970 Botucatu, SP, Brasil 3 Secretaria de Educação, Prefeitura Municipal de Pato Branco, Rua Caramuru, 271Centro, 85501-060 Pato Branco, PR, Brasil  Manuscript received on June 13, 2008; accepted for publication on June 4, 2009; presented by  A LEXANDER   W.A. K  ELLNER  ABSTRACT The scope of this work was to rescue and document the traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal plants used by Passo da Ilha rural community, in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Southern Brazil (26 ◦ 11  S, 52 ◦ 36  W and 760 mhigh). Structured interviews were made in field research with 16 informants who had the traditional knowledge aboutmedicinal plants. The research was carried out from October to December 2000. The plants were collected in the field,identified and their vouchers were housed at the Herbarium “Irina Delanova De Gemtchjnicov” (BOTU) of São PauloState University, in Botucatu. A total of 47 botanical families and 114 species of medicinal plants were identified.These plants were suitable for more than 30 different medicinal uses. The residents are mainly of European descent,which justify the presence of many exotic plants. The knowledge on how to use medicinal plants properly is heldmainly by the females, and decreases in the newer generations, denoting “cultural erosion” in progress. Key words:  cultural erosion, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge. INTRODUCTION The use of medicinal plants and their derived formshave produced the basis of the therapeutics through thecenturies. With the Chemistry evolution, starting fromthe 19 th century, the way in which plants were usedchanged: from the direct use of these plants alone or mixed to the artificial reproduction of isolated activesubstances through active molecules. As a consequence,the plants that form these substances were consideredto be less important.Therefore, the relative knowledge of the medici-nal plants is being lost through the generations. Despite Correspondence to: José Abramo MarcheseE-mail:  of this, most of the worlds population has little accessto conventional medical care – which relies on the pre-scription of synthetic medication that is usually too ex- pensive for them. In this sense, a considerable addi-tional difficulty is the limited availability of syntheticmedications for the poorer populations in the govern-ment health service. One of the viable and inexpensivealternatives to access medication would be the use of medicinal plants and their mixtures by the communitiesas a complementary form of therapeutics. Most popula-tions present high cultural attachment to their own tra-ditions, a factor that would facilitate the development of a community program that uses medicinal plants with proven therapeutic action. It could encourage the tradi-  An Acad Bras Cienc (2009) 81  (4)  692  JOSÉ A. MARCHESE et al. tional uses of the plants in the communities (Farnsworthet al. 1985, Farnsworth 1988).According to Farnsworth et al. (1985), and Eliza- betsky (1991, 2000), a fairly high percentage of useful plant-derived drugs was discovered as a result of scien-tific research of well-known plants used in traditionalmedicine, and the authors have concluded that this isa good approach for discovering other useful drugs de-rived from plants.The scope of this work was to rescue and docu-ment the traditional knowledge regarding the medici-nal plants used by the population of the rural commu-nity called “Passo da Ilha” in Pato Branco, Paraná State,Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS “Passo da Ilha” rural community in Pato Branco, ParanáState, Brazil, (26 ◦ 11  S; 52 ◦ 36  W) (Fig. 1), is mainlycomposed by small properties where subsistence agri-culture is practiced. The first objective of this work was to have discussions in informal meetings with thecommunity, so that they understand and allow the ac-tivities that would be carried out. The ethnobotanicalsurvey was conducted by structured interviews with 16informants who had the knowledge of medicinal plantsusage in their families (Martin 1995, Alexiades 1996).The interviews were carried out from October to De-cember 2000.The plants were collected in field, pressed and la- beled (Martin 1995, Ming 1995, Alexiades 1996). Plantspecies were identified and voucher specimens housedat the Herbarium “Irina Delanova De Gemtchjnicov”(BOTU) of São Paulo State University in Botucatu.For protection purposes, regarding the genetic resourcesand the traditional knowledge of medicinal use of these plants by the community, no information related to me-dicinal use was reported. This publication option is inagreement with other researchers thoughts (Laird andKate 2002) and we found it to be the more ethical formto communicate the results in ethnobotanical survey. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 47 botanical families and 114 species of medicinal plants were identified; the prevalent fam-ilies were  Asteraceae  and  Lamiaceae , with 20 and 16species, respectively (Table I). These data agree withthose of Dsrconi et al. (2001) and Garlet and Irgang(2001), in ethnobotanical studies that were carried outin the South of Brazil, where the dominant species was  Asteracea , followed by  Lamiaceae . The high number of species mentioned for medicinal use is in contrastwith the few informants interviewed (16), which showsa great knowledge of medicinal plants mainly by el-derly people. These numbers reflect the value of thetraditional knowledge kept by the elderly people fromcommunities and their importance to both cultural and biological conservation (Heinrich et al. 1998, Amorozo2002, Monteiro et al. 2006).The medicinal plants were suitable for more than30 different medicinal uses, predominantly for respira-tory diseases and stomachic diseases, with 17.22% (57citations) and 9.97% (33 citations), respectively (TableII). These data agree with those of Garlet and Irgang(2001) and Marodin and Baptista (2001) who foundsimilar results in ethnobotanical studies that were car-ried out in the South of Brazil and in the West of Brazil by Amorozo (2002), where respiratory and stomachicdiseases are the two main health problems. The coldand wet weather in winter could worsen the health con-ditions of the inhabitants in most parts of Paraná Stateand affect their respiratory conditions.Motomiya et al. (2004), while investigating theuse of medicinal plants in Cassilândia – Mato Gros-so, Brazil, noticed that the most frequently mentioned plants are those used for stomach, intestine and breath-ing illness treatment such as flu, bronchitis and cough.Franco and Barros (2006) found that the greatest vari-ety of different medicinal plants was for the control of  breathing illnesses, coming to 26.7%, in Esperantina – Piauí, Brazil.Figure 2 shows that many medicinal species wererecurrently mentioned by different informants possiblydue to the fact that they are long-standing inhabitants of the locations (Table III) and exchange plants and infor-mation. A great number of exotic plants were listed inthe interviews (Fig. 2), and this is probably due to thefact that the informants have predominantly Europeanancestry (Italian 38%; German 13%; Portuguese 9%;Ukrainian 6%; Poles 3%) and only 31% of Brazilian  An Acad Bras Cienc (2009) 81  (4)  MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY PASSO DA ILHA RURAL COMMUNITY  693 Fig. 1 – Geographical location of Pato Branco-PR, Southern Brazil (26 ◦ 11  S; 52 ◦ 36  W). TABLE I Botanical families and the number of species identified during the ethnobotanical surveycarried out in “Passo da Ilha” rural community, in the city of Pato Branco, Southern Brazil. Botanical families  1 spp. Botanical families  1 spp. Botanical families  1 spp.Agavaceae 1 Cucurbitaceae 1 Plantaginaceae 2Alismataceae 1 Equisetaceae 1 Poaceae 2Aloeaceae 1 Euphorbiaceae 2 Polygonaceae 1Amaranthaceae 2 Fabaceae 4 Polypodiaceae 1Apiaceae 3 Lamiaceae 16 Pteridaceae 2Aristolochiaceae 1 Lauraceae 2 Punicaceae 1Asteraceae 20 Liliaceae 3 Rosaceae 6Bignoniaceae 1 Lythraceae 1 Rutaceae 1Boraginaceae 1 Malvaceae 2 Simaroubaceae 1Brassicaceae 3 Mimosaceae 1 Solanaceae 2Caesalpinaceae 3 Moraceae 1 Urticaceae 1Caprifoliaceae 1 Myrtaceae 5 Verbenaceae 4Celastraceae 2 Papaveraceae 1 Violaceae 1Chenopodiaceae 1 Passifloraceae 1 Vitaceae 1Commelinaceae 1 Phytolaccaceae 1 Zingiberaceae 2Crassulaceae 1 Piperaceae 1 1  Number of different species found per botanical family. ancestry. Paraná State is one of the Brazilian States thathas received waves of European immigrants since endof 19 th century, which contributes to its great culturaldiversity. In addition, 65 exotic species and 49 nativespecies of medicinal plants were identified (AppendixI). These data are similar to those observed by Dsrconiet al. (2001), Garlet and Irgang (2001) and Marodin andBaptista (2001) in ethnobotanical studies carried out inthe south of Brazil, showing the great influence of theEuropean immigrants.  An Acad Bras Cienc (2009) 81  (4)  694  JOSÉ A. MARCHESE et al. TABLE II Number and percentage of citations of the ethnotherapeutic uses by differentinformants during the ethnobotanical survey carried out in “Passo da Ilha”rural community, in the city of Pato Branco, Southern Brazil. Ethnotherapeutic uses Number of recurrently Percentage of recurrentlymentioned species mentioned speciesHypertension 6 1.81Heart diseases 6 1.81Urinary bladder diseases 7 2.11Worms 7 2.11Pains in the body 8 2.42Anxiety 9 2.72Fever 9 2.72Hepatitis 9 2.72Migraine 11 3.32Infections 12 3.63Bruise 14 4.23Feminine diseases 14 4.23Renal diseases 16 4.83Intestinal diseases 26 7.85Blood diseases 32 9.67Stomachic diseases 33 9.97Respiratory diseases 57 17.22Anothers (less than fivetimes mentioned) 55 16.62Total 331 100.00 TABLE III The informants’ gender and time of living in “Passo da Ilha” rural community,in the city of Pato Branco, Southern Brazil. Informants Gender  Amount of yearsInformants Gender  Amount of yearsliving in the place living in the place1  ♀  23 9  ♀  252  ♀  23 10  ♂  233  ♀  20 11  ♀  274  ♀  24 12  ♀  645  ♀  15 13  ♀  446  ♀  20 14  ♀  657  ♂  20 15  ♀  308  ♀  27 16  ♀  37 ♀  =  feminine; ♂  =  masculine.  An Acad Bras Cienc (2009) 81  (4)
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