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  Organisation for EconomicCo-operation and Development(OECD) Founder member countries(1961)Other member countries Secretariat Paris, France Official languages English · French Membership AustraliaAustriaBelgiumCanadaChileCzechRepublicDenmark EstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIcelandIrelandIsraelItalyJapanLuxembourgMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPolandPortugalSlovakiaSloveniaSouth KoreaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUnitedKingdomUnited States Leaders - Secretary-GeneralJosé Ángel Gurría Establishment -as the OEEC a 16 April 1948 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) (French: Organisation decoopération et de développement économiques , OCDE ) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries committedto democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers tocommon problems, identify good practices and co-ordinate domestic and international policies of its members.The OECD srcinated in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation ( OEEC ), [1] led byRobert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and itssatellite states [2] ). This would be achieved by allocating American financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II, where similar efforts in the Economic CooperationAct of 1948 of the United States of America, which stipulated the Marshall Plan that had also taken placeselsewhere in the world to war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, [3] but the American recovery program inEurope was the most successful one. [4] In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by theConvention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended tonon-European states. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human DevelopmentIndex (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. Contents 1 History1.1 Organisation for European Economic Co-operation1.2 Foundation of the OECD1.3 Enlargement to Central Europe1.4 Reform and further enlargement2 Objectives and activities2.1 Aim2.2 International investments and multinational enterprises2.3 PISA2.4 Taxation2.5 Publishing2.5.1 Books2.5.2 Magazine2.5.3 Statistics2.5.4 Working papers2.5.5 Reference works3 Structure3.1 Meetings3.2 Secretariat3.3 Secretaries-General3.4 Committees3.5 Special bodies4 Member countries4.1 Current members4.2 Former members4.3 Currently in accession talks4.4 Likely to open accession talks in 20155 Relations with non-members6 Criticism7 Indicators8 See also9 Notes10 References11 External links11.1 Video clips History Organisation for European Economic Co-operation The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation ( OEEC ) was formed in 1948 to administer Americanand Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. [5] It 34 countries Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Wikipedia, ... of 1120/10/2013 10:40 PM  - reformed as theOECD30 September 1961 Website ( Organisation for European Economic Co-operation. OECD membersAccession candidate countriesEnhanced engagement countries started its operations on 16 April 1948. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Chateau de la Muette in Paris,France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues. [6] In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up aEuropean Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC memberstogether on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adaptedto fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, aresolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries.This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight awayon bringing in Japan. [7] Foundation of the OECD Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentwas drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada, with Japan joining three years later. The official founding members are:AustriaBelgiumCanadaDenmark FranceGermanyGreeceIcelandIrelandItalyLuxembourgThe Netherlands NorwayPortugalSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUnited KingdomUnited StatesDuring the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with theestablishment of the OECD until its dissolution. [8] The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on MoneyLaundering.Unlike the organizations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling organisation with an s in its name rather than organization (see -ise/-ize). Enlargement to Central Europe In 1989, after the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the OECD started to assist these countries to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centrefor Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, theProgramme Partners in Transition was launched for the cooperation with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. [8][9] This programme also included a membershipoption for these countries. [9] As a result of this, Poland, [10] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as also non-European countries Mexico and South Korea [11]  became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000. Reform and further enlargement In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness tooin the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey. [12] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become fullmembers of the OECD. [13] Slovenia also applied for membership that same year. [14] In 2005, Malta applied to join theorganization. [15] The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states. [16] Romania reaffirmed in 2012 itsintention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime-Minister Victor-Viorel Ponta to the OECD Secretary-General, Angel Gurria. [17] In September 2012, the government of Bulgariaconfirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat. [18] In 2003, the OECD established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD Seiichiro Noboru towork out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that theselection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: like-mindedness , significant player , mutual benefit and global considerations . The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on theserecommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership. [8] As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile,Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhancedengagement. [19] Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010. [20][21] In 2011, President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia expressed the country's willingness to join the organization during a speech at the OECD headquarters. [22] In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. It also announced its intention to open talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania in2015. [23] Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Peru [24] and Malaysia. [25] Objectives and activities a. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Wikipedia, ... of 1120/10/2013 10:40 PM  One of a number of posters created by theEconomic Cooperation Administration to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe. Aim The OECD defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a settingto compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices, and co-ordinate domesticand international policies. [26] Its mandate covers economic, environmental, and social issues. It acts by peer pressure toimprove policy and implement soft law —non-binding instruments that can occasionally lead to binding treaties. Inthis work, the OECD cooperates with businesses, with trade unions and with other representatives of civil society.Collaboration at the OECD regarding taxation, for example, has fostered the growth of a global web of bilateral taxtreaties.The OECD promotes policies designed:to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as nonmember countries in the process of economic development; andto contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis in accordance withinternational obligations. International investments and multinational enterprises Between 1995 and 1998, the OECD designed the Multilateral Agreement on Investment, which was abandoned because of a widespread criticism from civil society groups and developing countries. In 1976, the OECD adopted theDeclaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises, which was rewritten and annexed by the OECDGuidelines for Multinational Enterprises in 2000.Among other areas, the OECD has taken a role in co-ordinating international action on corruption and bribery, creating the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, whichcame into effect in February 1999. It has been ratified by thirty-eight countries. [27] The OECD has also constituted an anti-spam task force, which submitted a detailed report, with several background papers on spam problems in developing countries, best practices for ISPs, e-mail marketers, etc., appended. It works on the information economy [28] and the future of the Internet economy. [29] PISA Further information: Programme for International Student Assessment  The OECD publishes the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is an assessment that allows educational performances to be examined on acommon measure across countries. Taxation See also: FATF Blacklist  The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for bilateral negotiations regarding tax coordination and cooperation. This model isaccompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment srcinates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment ismade (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be very unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings).Since 1998, the OECD has led a charge against harmful tax practices, principally targeting the activities of tax havens (while principally accepting the policies of itsmember countries, which would tend to encourage tax competition). These efforts have been met with mixed reaction: The primary objection is the sanctity of tax policy as a matter of sovereign entitlement. [30] The OECD maintains a 'blacklist' of countries it considers uncooperative in the drive for transparency of tax affairs andthe effective exchange of information, officially called The List of Uncooperative Tax Havens . [31] In May 2009, all remaining countries were removed from thelist. [32] On 22 October 2008, at an OECD meeting in Paris, 17 countries led by France and Germany decided to draw up a new blacklist of tax havens. The OECD has beenasked to investigate around 40 new tax havens in the world where undeclared revenue is hidden and that host many of the non-regulated hedge funds that have comeunder fire during the 2008 financial crisis. Germany, France, and other countries called on the OECD to specifically add Switzerland to a blacklist of countries thatencourage tax fraud. [33] Publishing The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECDiLibrary.The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisationfor European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on theOECD premises by appointment: ( Books The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English andFrench. The OECD flagship titles include: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Wikipedia, ... of 1120/10/2013 10:40 PM  The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries.The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators.The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental andsocial indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimesother major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via Statlinks.The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. Theycontain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies.In 2007 the OECD published  Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life , the first book in the OECD Insights series. This series uses OECD analysisand data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international tradeand international migration.All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives. [n 1] Magazine OECD Observer  , an award-winning magazine [n 2] launched in 1962. [34] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with theintroduction of the OECD Yearbook  , [n 3] launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation. [35] The online and mobile [36] editions are updated regularly. News,analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus orderinginformation. [37] A OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013. [38] Statistics The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects.OECD statistics are available in several forms:as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables,as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal,as StatLinks (in most OECD books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data). Working papers There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals. Reference works The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 , which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable. Structure The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:The OECD member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD Council. Member countries actcollectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organization.The OECD Substantive Committees, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and soon). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals.The OECD Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organized intoDirectorates, which include about 2,500 staff. Meetings Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy-Secretary General Pierre Vinde estimated in 1997 that the cost borne bythe member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat. [39] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations. [ citation needed  ] In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and expertsthan an administration. Noteworthy meetings include:The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among thecountries.The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. This takes the form of conferences and discussions and is open to public participation.Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e. all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.).The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition tomeasure and foster progress in societies. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Wikipedia, ... of 1120/10/2013 10:40 PM
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