Qmul med student's lecture y2 10 jan 2014

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1. Multiple Sclerosis – BB2 10th Jan 2014 Professor Gavin Giovannoni 2. Topics to be covered ã Definition ã Pathology ã Epidemiology ã Aetiology ã Autoimmune…
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  • 1. Multiple Sclerosis – BB2 10th Jan 2014 Professor Gavin Giovannoni
  • 2. Topics to be covered • Definition • Pathology • Epidemiology • Aetiology • Autoimmune pathogenesis • Clinical features • Treatment
  • 3. Definition Pathological Definition: Inflammatory disease of the CNS characterised by demyelination and variable degrees of axonal loss and gliosis. Clinical Definition: Objective CNS dysfunction, i.e. involvement of two or more white matter structures separated by time (1 months)*, with no other aetiology. * At least 1 month
  • 4. Gross Pathology
  • 5. Histopathology - inflammation
  • 6. Histopathology - demyelination
  • 7. Histopathology - gliosis
  • 8. Epidemiology • Age of onset - 3rd / 4th decade (16 - 50 years) • Prevalence - ~125/100,000 (latitude dependent) • Life Span - slightly reduced (~ 10 years) • Sex - F > M • Race - Caucasians (uncommon in Chinese / ? Viking ancestral genes) • Geography - Northern European Disease • Familial clustering
  • 9. Aetiology • Unknown • ? Infection • ? Autoimmune disease
  • 10. Risk Factors • Genes • Environment • Sunlight/UVB • vD • EBV • Smoking
  • 11. Genetics Increasing relatedness to an MS patient increases your risk of getting the disease . Willer et al, 2003
  • 12. GWAS results in MS . IMSGC & WTCCC2, 2011
  • 13. Migration studies Compston & Coles, Lancet 2008.
  • 14. Geographical distribution of MS: prevalence increases away from the equator 93 103 82 77 100 88 97 87 62 59 84 47 7 6 70 78 95 71 55 51 53 51 53 Vukusic S et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2007;78:707–709.
  • 15. Role of vD3: UVB and MS prevalence MS Prevalence by Department Against UVMED minimum 93 103 82 77 100 88 98 87 62 59 Department UVMed MIN 3–4 4–6 6–7 7–9 84 47 76 70 78 95 71 55 51 53 51 10–11 11–13 14–16 45 1Jablonski NG, Chaplin G. J Hum Evol 2000;39:57–106. Am J Phys Anthropol 2004;125:292–302. 2Chaplin G.
  • 16. Age-standardised MS prevalence (per 100,000) MS, Latitude and UV 80 80 Latitude Sunlight 70 70 70 60 60 60 50 50 50 40 40 40 30 30 30 20 20 20 10 10 10 0 0 0 15 20 25 Latitude (degrees) 30 35 40 45 0 80 0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 0 9.0 Average annual bright sunshine (h) UVB 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Average annual ultraviolet radiation (kJ/m2/day) . Van der Mei et al, 2001
  • 17. Prevalence of MS in the UK . Ramagopalan et al, 2011
  • 18. Relationship of MS Prevalence to Ultraviolet exposure Ramagopalan et al, 2011
  • 19. Month of Birth . 1Willer CJ et al. BMJ 2005;330:120–125.
  • 20. Familial Risk Compston & Coles, Lancet 2008.
  • 21. Epidemics or clusters of MS The annual incidence of MS (per 100 000 inhabitants) in the Faroe Islands since 1940 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Kurtzke JF et al. Acta Neurol Scand 1993;88:161–173.
  • 22. Infectious agents in MS Ramagopalan et al 2009
  • 23. Infectious mononucleosis and MS . 19390 MS patients and 16007 controls, p < 10-54 Handel et al, 2010
  • 24. Odds ratio of MS in subjects seronegative for EBV Ascherio et al, 2007
  • 25. Smoking is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis Handel et al, 2010
  • 26. Changing sex ratios Orton et al. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 932–36.
  • 27. Clues to autoimmunity • Autoimmune disease • • • • • • • MHC associations Possible associations with other autoimmune diseases Females > males Autoreactive T-cells and B-cells Affected by pregnancy and viral infections Animal models (EAE) Pathology • Unable to transfer disease
  • 28. Clinical Presentation - symptoms & signs • Motor - spasticity, weakness and gait abnormalities. • Sensory - positive (pins & needles) and negative sensory phenomena (loss of sensation). • Cerebellum - inco-ordination and unsteady gait. • Brain Stem - diplopia, vertigo, nystagmus, dysarthria • Optic Nerves - optic neuritis (blurred vision) • Bladder and Bowel - incontinence • Higher Functions - depression, poor concentration, forgetfulness, etc. • Fatigue
  • 29. Most embarrassing symptom
  • 30. Society’s perspective
  • 31. MS is a severely debilitating disease with a major socio-economic burden EDSS and utilitya show a significant inverse relationship1,b  MS is one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults 2  Natural history studies indicate that it takes a median time of 8, 20 and 30 years to reach the irreversible disability levels of EDSS 4, 6 and 7, respectively3  Up to 75% increased annualized divorce rate4  Life expectancy is reduced by 5-10 years5  In a 2004 study, 2 out of 3 patients with RRMS were unemployed due to the disease 6 aUtility measures are derived from EQ-5D using the EuroQoL instrument. from Orme et al 2007. Error bars depict 95% confidence intervals. Half points on EDSS are not shown on graph axis, except at EDSS 6.5. bAdapted 1.Orme M et al. Value In Health. 2007;10:54-60. 2.WHO. 2008.[TK] 3. Confavreaux, Compston. 2005.[TK] 4. Coles et al. 2001.[TK] 5. Confavreaux, Vukusic. 2006.[TK] 6. Morales-Gonzales. Mult Scler. 2004;10:47-54.
  • 32. Horizontal eye movements L R III MLF VI PPRF MLF = medial longitudinal fasiculus PPRF = parapontine reticular formation
  • 33. Case history 1 • A 26 year old female, with previous history of myelitis, presents with double vision on looking to the left.
  • 34. Where is the lesion? Horizontal Eye Movements L R   R L  R L III MLF VI PPRF Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
  • 35. MRI
  • 36. MRI 1. 2. Three or more white matter lesions At least two of the following i. At least 1 lesion abutting body of lateral ventricle ii. At least 1 infratentorial lesion iii. A lesion > 6mm Sensitivity = 81% Specificity = 96% Callosal lesions Offenbacher H, et al. Neurology 1993;43:905-9.
  • 37. Evoked potentials VEP BAEP SSEP 1950 1006 1006 26 26 31 Definite MS 85% 67% 77% Probable MS 58% 41% 67% Possible MS 37% 30% 49% Asymptomatic 51% 38% 42% 63% 46% 58% 76% No. patients No. series Rates of abnormality All patients (upper limbs) (lower limbs)
  • 38. Axonal plasticity - sodium channel Waxman SG. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Dec;7(12):932-41.
  • 39. Reduced safety factor of conduction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLSxS9THnGU Videos courtesy Hugh Bostock, Inst. Neurol., UCL http://www.youtube.com/user/ggiovannoni#p/a/u/1/iC9U0Obzhh4
  • 40. Case study 1 • 29 year male with early MS complains of difficulty playing squash: • 10 – 15 minutes after starting to play he keeps missing the ball. • Why?
  • 41. Carl Pulfrich (1858 to 1927) The Pulfrich effect is a psychophysical percept wherein lateral motion of an object in the field of view is interpreted by the visual cortex as having a depth component, due to a relative difference in signal timings between the two eyes.
  • 42. Wilhelm Uhthoff
  • 43. Circadian and hypothermia-induced effects on visual and auditory evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis Romani et al. Clinical Neurophysiology 111 (2000) 1602-1606.
  • 44. Sustained-release oral fampridine in multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial Goodman et al. Lancet 2009; 373: 732–38.
  • 45. Intrathecal or central compartment IEF - Oligoclonal IgG Bands CSF Serum normal / polyclonal local OCBs local & systemic OCBs systemic OCBs Systemic or peripheral compartment
  • 46. CSF OCBs Test Quantitative Abnormal blood CSF barrier function (Albumin quotient > 7 x 10-3) Increased IgG quotient (IgG index > 0.88) Increased cell count (> 4/ l) Qualitative Agarose Acrylamide IEF - oligoclonal bands % Abnormal 12% 70-80% 50% 60% 75-85% 95-98%
  • 47. Clinical course relapsing-remitting MS secondary progressive MS
  • 48. MS Expanded Disability Status Scale - EDSS
  • 49. Treatment  Disease Modifying – – Relapsing cases - interferon beta , glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate – Highly active cases – fingolimod, natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone – Drugs in development –laquinimod, ocrelizumab, daclizumab, etc. – Progressive cases – nothing licensed; need for effective neuroprotectants – Prevention – strategies need to be tested –  Acute Relapse - high dose corticosteroids Cure –early aggressive immune system rebooters have the greatest chance of a cure Symptomatic – Spasticity (baclofen, etc.) – Bladder and bowel function – Fatigue – Depression – Infections – Skin and foot care – Pain – Physiotherapy – Occupational Care
  • 50. Prognosis  Highly variable* – 30% benign disease (depends on follow-up) – 15 yrs ~30% wheel chair – 20 yrs ~50% wheel chair – 50% unemployment rate 8-10 yrs post diagnosis  Good prognostic – young, female – relapsing course – optic neuritis or sensory onset – long gap between first and second relapses. – full recovery from initial attack – low baseline lesion load on MRI Survival slightly reduced * old natural history data, which will have improved with DMTs
  • 51. Teach Neurology
  • 52. Reading material 1. 2. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2008 ;372:1502-17. Ramagopalan et al. Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential causal pathways. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 727–39.
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