Spices of India

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Spices of India
  Anise Anise  / ˈ æ n ɪ s/, [1]   Pimpinella anisum , also called aniseed , is aflowering plant in the family Apiaceaenative to the easternMediterranean regionandSouthwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such asstar anise,fennel, andliquorice.   Contents [show]Biology[edit] Anise is aherbaceous annual plantgrowing to 1 m (3 ft) or more tall. Theleavesat the base of the plant are simple, 1-5 cm (⅜-2 in.) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems arefeathery pinnate, divided into numerous leaves. Theflowersare white, approximately 3 mm in (⅛ in.)in diameter, produced in denseumbels. Thefruitis an oblong dryschizocarp, 3–6 mm (⅛-¼ in.) long, usually called aniseed . [2]  Anise is a food plant for thelarvaeof someLepidopteraspecies (butterfliesandmoths), including thelime-speck pugandwormwood pug. Cultivation[edit] Anise plants grow best in light, fertile, well drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon as theground warms up in spring. Because the plants have ataproot, they do not transplant well after beingestablished, so they should be started either in their final location or transplanted while the seedlingsare still small. [3] Production[edit]Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor some dishes, drinks, and candies, and the word isused for both the species of herb and its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of theessential oilof anise,anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice called star anise ( Illicium verum ) widely used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian dishes. Star anise isconsiderably less expensive to produce, and has gradually displaced Pimpinella anisum in Westernmarkets. While formerly produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tonnes, compared to 400 tonnes fromstar anise. [4] White pepper  White pepper grainsWhite pepper consists of the seed of the pepper plant alone, with the darker coloured skin of thepepper fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by a process known asretting, where fully ripe redpepper berries are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softensanddecomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried.Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, includingremoving the outer layer through mechanical, chemical or biological methods. [7] Ground white pepper is sometimes used in Chinese cooking or in dishes like salad, light-colouredsaucesor mashed potatoes, where black pepper would visibly stand out. White pepper has a slightly different flavour from black pepper due to the lack of certain compounds which are presentin the outer fruit layer of the drupe but are not found in the seed. Cinnamon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, seeCinnamon (disambiguation). Cinnamon sticks or quills and ground cinnamon Cinnamon (/ ˈ s ɪ n ə m ən/  SIN    -ə-mən ) is aspiceobtained from the inner bark of several trees from thegenus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum issometimes considered to be true cinnamon , most cinnamon in international commerce is derivedfrom related species, which are also referred to as cassia to distinguish them from true cinnamon . [1][2]  Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products thatsome of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the familyLauraceae. Only afew of them are grown commercially for spice. Contents [show]Etymology[edit]The name cinnamon comes through the Greek kinnámōmon , possibly fromPhoenician. [3] In Sri Lanka, inSinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu ( කරඳ ), [4] and was recorded inEnglishin the17th century as korunda . It is called karuva in Tamil. [5] In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Javaand Sumatra, it is called kayu manis ( sweet wood ). In several European languages, the word for cinnamon comes from the Latin word cannella , a diminutive of  canna , tube , from the way it curls upas it dries.Cultivation[edit]Leaves from a wild cinnamon treeGlobal annual production of cinnamon and cassia amounts to 27,500-35,000 tons. Cinnamomverum accounts for 7,500-10,000 tons of production, with the remainder produced by other species. [1]  Sri Lankaproduces 80-90% of the world's supply of  C. verum , but that is the only species grownthere; C. verum is also cultivated on a commercial scale inSeychellesandMadagascar . [1] Globalproduction of the other species averages 20,000-25,000 tons, of which Indonesia produces aroundtwo-thirds of the total, with significant production inChina.IndiaandVietnamare also minor  producers. [1] Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years, thencoppicingit. The next year, about adozen shoots will form from the roots.
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