Studies on heterosis in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

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Studies on heterosis in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)
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    Studies on heterosis in okra (  Abelmoschus esculentus  (L.) Moench) Ramesh K Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Sanjay K Singh Received: 25 September 2015 Revised Accepted: 16 October 2015 ABSTRACT In the present investigation a study was undertaken in the Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University during the year 2006 – 2008 to identify potential parents and superior cross combinations for yield improvement. Six bhendi genotypes viz.,  Girija Vikas, MDU 1, Hissar Unnath, Arka Abhay and EC 305623 were crossed in full diallel fashion (including the reciprocals). The eight characters observed included days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, individual fruit weight, fruit yield per plant. The results revealed that the standard heterosis for fruit yield per plant was maximum with the hybrid MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath. Standard heterosis upto a value of 65.23 per cent recorded by MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath. This hybrid recorded high standard heterosis for all the characters except number of branches per plant and individual fruit weight. Key Words:   Different type of heterosis, Heterosis, Oka INTRODUCTION Okra is a powerhouse of variable nutrients. It is a good source of vitamin C, providing 20 per cent of daily value for a 2000 calorie diet in 100 g. It is low in calories and is fat free. Okra is a surprising versatile vegetable. It also holds a high place in the nutritional charts for its fibrous content and other medicinal benefits. The attempt on bhendi breeding was not exhaustive and has reviewed by Joshi and Hardas (1956). The yield potential of bhendi is low. The productivity of this crop should be increased by improving the genetic architecture through hybridization and recombination. Indeed knowledge of combining ability, heterosis of yield and its Ramesh K Singh () Division of Crop Improvement & Biotechnology (Mango Database Project) ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH) Rehmankhera (Malihabad), P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-227107 (UP) Email: sarthakbittu100@gmail.com Rajesh Kumar Department of Horticulture (Vegetable & Floriculture), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur) – 813 210, Bihar Sanjay K Singh Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kanti, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Madhya Pradesh component characters should be placed greater emphasis for the improvement of this crop.   MATERIALS AND METHODS The experimental material consisted of five bhendi genotypes viz ., Girija Vikas, MDU 1, Hissar Unnath, Arka Abhay and EC 305623 received from the Department of Agricultural Botany. The genotypes represented wide genetic diversity. The selected five genotypes were crossed in all possible combinations and produced 20 hybrids. The seeds obtained from the crossing block were sown during August 2007 to raise the hybrids. Cultural and agronomic practices were followed as per the standard recommendation and need based plant protection measures were taken up to maintain healthy crop stand. The observations like days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, individual fruit weight and fruit yield per plant were taken. The magnitude of heterosis was calculated as follows: Journal of Biotechnology and Crop Science 4(5): 39-42, 2015    i.  Increase of mean F1 performance over that of the mean performance of the mid parent. Relative heterosis (di) = MPMPF 1  − x 100 ii . Increase of mean F1 performance over that of the mean performance of the better parent Heterobeltiosis (dii) = BPBPF 1  − x 100 iii . Increase of mean F1 performance over that of mean performance of the standard variety Standard heterosis (diii) = SVSVF 1  − x 100 The significance of heterosis was tested using the formula suggested by Wynne et al   (1970). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The hybrids with high amount of heterosis can be exploited. The hybrids are normally assessed in terms of percent increase over mid parent, better parent and standard variety. In the present investigation five hybrids recorded significant and positive standard heterosis for days to 50 per cent flowering. Two hybrids recorded significant negative standard heterosis for this trait.   The hybrid EC 305623 x MDU 1 recorded maximum positive significant standard heterosis for this trait. The hybrid MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath recorded maximum negative significant standard heterosis for this trait. Ten hybrids recorded significant positive standard heterosis for plant height. Maximum positive significant standard heterosis was recorded by MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath (27.14 per cent).   For number of branches per plant none of the hybrids recorded positive and significant standard heterosis. The hybrids Arka Abhay x EC 305623 and EC 305623 x Arka Abhay recorded maximum positive significant relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for this trait. Similar results was given by Singh and Singh (1979) and Rewale et al (2003). All the twenty hybrids recorded positive significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for number of fruits per plant.   The hybrid Girija Vikas x EC 305623 recorded maximum positive significant relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for this trait. The hybrid Hissar Unnath x Arka Abhay recorded maximum positive significant standard heterosis. For the fruit length all the twenty hybrids recorded positive significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis.   The hybrid MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath recorded maximum positive significant standard heterosis for this trait. For the fruit girth none of the hybrids recorded positive significant standard heterosis and heterobeltiosis. All the twenty hybrids recorded positive and significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for the individual fruit weight. The hybrid Hissar Unnath x MDU 1 recorded maximum positive significant standard heterosis for this trait. Similar reports were presented by Singh and Singh (1979), Poshiya and Shukla (1986), Metwally and Etsamy (1990), Saha and Kabir (2001), Shobha (2002) and Murugan (2004). All the twenty hybrids recorded positive and significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for the fruit yield per plant. The hybrid MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath recorded maximum positive significant standard heterosis for this trait. From the above discussion it may be concluded that the among the twenty hybrids the hybrid MDU 1 x Hissar Unnath was identified as superior hybrid as it recorded significant and positive standard heterosis for fruit yield per plant and significant and negative standard heterosis for days to 50 per cent flowering. J of Biotech & Crop Sci (2015) 4(5): 39-42      Table 1  Percentage of standard heterosis of diallel Hybrids.   ** Significant at 1 per cent level Table 2 Percentage of standard heterosis of diallel hybrids (contd.). Hybrids Days to 50 Percent Flowering Plant Height Number of Branches Per Plant Number of Fruits Per Plant Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal GIRIJA VIKAS X MDU–1 2.70** 2.70** 9.26** 17.70** -1.69 1.69 15.72** 27.67** GIRIJA VIKAS X HISSAR UNNATH 1.35 -2.70 2.50** 21.57** 0.01 5.08 19.81** 19.81** GIRIJA VIKAS X ARKA ABHAY 2.70** -2.70 11.50** 16.90** 5.08 1.69 22.33** 22.33** GIRIJA VIKAS X EC 305623 0.01 0.01 13.65** 18.08** 1.69 1.69 22.96** 22.96** MDU – 1 X HISSAR UNNATH -4.05** -4.05** 27.14** 25.08** 6.78 10.17 35.85** 28.93** MDU – 1 X ARKA ABHAY 2.70 -2.70 1.69 5.08 1.69 5.08 27.99** 27.67** MDU – 1 X EC 305623 2.70** 9.46** 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 26.10** 26.42** HISSAR UNNATH X ARKA ABHAY 0.01 -2.70 0.01 1.69 0.01 1.69 27.99** 29.56** HISSAR UNNATH X EC 305623 2.70 0.01 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 26.42** 25.79** ARKA ABHAY X EC 305623 -2.70 0.01 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 27.99** 25.79** Hybrids Fruit Length Fruit Girth Fruit Weight Fruit Yield Per Plant Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal Direct Reciprocal GIRIJA VIKAS X MDU–1 17.34** 21.23** -2.39 -2.39 11.51** 12.92** 29.63** 29.63** GIRIJA VIKAS X HISSAR UNNATH 20.82** 21.56** -1.44 -2.20 12.95** 15.47** 35.89** 35.89** GIRIJA VIKAS X ARKA ABHAY 16.19** 23.20** -1.63 -2.39 11.99** 19.02** 37.68** 37.68** GIRIJA VIKAS X EC 305623 17.42** 18.98** -2.01 -1.63 11.47** 14.99** 37.97** 37.97** MDU–1 X HISSAR UNNATH 28.61** 26.48** 0.57 -1.72 20.65** 20.84** 65.23** 58.42** MDU–1 X ARKA ABHAY 18.69** 18.44** -2.39 -2.01 13.25** 15.03** 44.55** 48.13** MDU–1 X EC 305623 15.70** 16.31** -1.91 -1.44 12.18** 11.81** 42.30** 42.12** HISSAR UNNATH X ARKA ABHAY 21.19** 18.65** -2.11 -2.11 16.43** 14.62** 49.92** 49.47** HISSAR UNNATH X EC 305623 23.73** 15.78** -2.58 -2.20 18.80** 11.88** 51.08** 41.73** ARKA ABHAY X EC 305623 17.30** 20.61** -1.05 -2.01 16.03** 16.03** 46.00** 46.80** J of Biotech & Crop Sci (2015) 4(5): 39-42      REFERENCES Joshi AB, Hardas MW (1956) Alloploid nature of okra (  Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench). Nature 178 – 190. Metwally E, Etsamy BI (1990) Heterosis and nature of gene action studies on yield and related traits of okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L .) . J Agric Res 14(2): 1094 – 1105. Murugan S (2004) Studies on combining ability and heterosis through diallel analysis in bhendi (  Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) M.Sc (Ag) Thesis Annamali Univ Annamalainagar. Poshiya VK, Shukla PT (1986a) Heterosis studies in bhend. Gjuarat Agrl Univ Res J 25(1): 26 – 31. Rewale VS, Bendale VW, Bhave SG, Madav RR, Jadhav BB (2003) Combining ability of yield and yield components in okra. J Maharashtra Agricultural Univ 28(3): 244 – 246. Saha A, Kabir J (2001) Economic heterosis of some commercial hybrids of bhendi (  Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Crop Res 22(2): 271 – 273. Shoba K (2002) Development of high yielding F 1  hybrids in bhendi (  Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) through line x tester analysis. M.Sc (Hort.) Thesis Tamil nadu Agrl Univ Madurai. Singh SP, Singh HN (1979) Hybrid vigour for yield and its components in Okra. Indian J Agric Sci 49(8): 596 – 601. Wynne JC, Emery DA, Rice PW (1970) Combining ability estimate in  Arachis hypogaea L. II. Field performance of F 1  hybrids. Crop Sci   10(6): 713-715. J of Biotech & Crop Sci (2015) 4(5): 39-42  
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