THE MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSE (MOOC) IS A NEW WAY OF DISTNCE LEARNING AT THE GLOBAL AND NATIONAL LEVEL

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1. THE MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSE (MOOC) IS A NEW WAY OF DISTNCE LEARNING AT THE GLOBAL AND NATIONAL LEVEL “Massive Open Online Courses Programmes are Salient…
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  • 1. THE MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSE (MOOC) IS A NEW WAY OF DISTNCE LEARNING AT THE GLOBAL AND NATIONAL LEVEL “Massive Open Online Courses Programmes are Salient Revolution in the Field of Distance Education”- ---The New York Times Dr.MOTHUKURI ANJAIAH Asst. Professor University Central Library DRAVIDIAN UNIVERSITY-KUPPAM-517 426 E-Mail: anjaiahlib@gmail.com: Mobile: +91 9908694950 (Abstract) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a recent development in field of distance education. The MOOCs are an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. MOOCS enable learners to learn from anywhere irrespective of their situation as long as they have internet access. In addition to traditional course materials such as reading course material, audios and videos, teleconferencing and personnel contact/counselling classes,MOOCs provide interactive user forums that help build a community for the students, professors, and teaching assistants. The MOOCs have recently received a great deal of attention from the media, entrepreneurial vendors, education professionals and technologically literate sections of the public. The promise of MOOC is that they will provide free to access, cutting edge courses that could drive down the cost of university-level education and potentially disrupt the existing models of Higher Education. This has encouraged elite universities to put their courses online by setting up Open learning platforms. New commercial starts-ups as Coursera and Udacity have also been launched in collaboration with prestigious universities offering Online Courses for free or fee (a small fee) for certification that is not part of credit for awards.(S.Jeelani:11:2016).C courses offering from school level to post-graduation level in all programmes. The MOOCs are available with free and fee. Hence, day-by-day, MOOCs are getting more popular at global as well as in India. *paper submitted to the National Conferenceat ANU, Guntur, 15-16 December2016 1
  • 2. India offering the MOOCs by name ` SWAYAM`. SWAYAM is an Information Technology platform which will host Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and provide high quality education on various subjects from school level (class 9-12) to Under Graduate and Post Graduate students--covering all disciplines which was launched by our Hon`ble Prime Minister Sri Narendra Modi on 15th August 2016. The present paper discuss the history and development of MOOCs,its characteristics, importance, MOOC providers, challenges before the MOOC and conclusion and at the end valuable suggestions for strengthening MOOs in India. Key-Words: MOOC, MOOCs providers, SWAYAM, Video lectures Voice-centered technology 1. Introduction: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a recent development in the field of distance education. A Massive Open Online Course is a free Web-based distance learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students. MOOC is a new form of education for students who want to advance their skills at any level or cannot access traditional education due to time, financial problems, geographic accessibility, disability or other reasons. A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials, such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support community interactions among students, professors. MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance education which were first introduced in 2008 and emerged as a popular mode of learning in 2012 Massive Open Online Courses have recently received a great deal of attention from the media, entrepreneurial vendors, education professionals and technologically literate sections of the public. The promise of MOOC is that they will provide free to access, cutting edge courses that could drive down the cost of university-level education and potentially disrupt the existing models of Higher Education. This has encouraged elite universities to put their courses online by setting up Open learning platforms. New commercial starts-ups as Coursera and Udacityhave also been launched in collaboration with prestigious universities offering Online Courses for free or fee (a small fee) for certification that is not part of credit for awards.(S.Jeelani:11:2016). The Massive Open Online Course movement is a “big thing” in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) to threaten to transform higher education in a significant way. In simply, MOOCs are “...courses designed for large numbers of participants, that can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online for free”. MOOCs often emphasized open access features, such as open licensing of content, open structure, learning goals and connectivism, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources, some notable newer MOOCs use closed licenses for their course materials, while maintaining free access for students. 2
  • 3. 2. What is MOOC? • Massive: means the large number of students that can be engaged in an online course. Availability of large amount of educational material and global reach through internet. • Open: means, `Openness`. Available for anyone around the world at no cost, as long as they have an internet connection. Some providers offer optional certification exams on a small payment. Open Curriculum, learning resources, and assessment. • Online: These courses are based on videos, articles, games, social learning, quizzes, assignments and other proprietary methods which can be conveniently accessed at anytime, from anywhere. 3. Meaning of MOOC: The word MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier, from the University of Prince Edward Island for a course offered by the University of Manitoba, Connectivism and Connective Knowledge. The acronym MOC is pronounced with a long oo sound, to rhyme with kook rather than book. The Oxford online dictionary added the term (as "Mooc") in August 2013. A course of study made available over the Internet without charge to a very large number of people. Anyone who decides to take a MOOC simply logs on to the website and signs up. • A course of study made available over the Internet without charge to a very large number of people. • Anyone who decides to take a MOOC simply logs on to the website and signs up. 4. Definition: MOOCs are courses designed for large numbers of participants that can be accessed by anyone, anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online for free. 5. Technologies Used in MOOC: • Voice-centered technology, such as CD or MP3 recordings or Webcasts • Video technology, such as instructional videos, DVDs, and interactive videoconferencing • Computer-centered technology delivered over the Internet or corporate intranet 6. MOOC-Its Features • MOOC stands for a Massive Open Online Course. • It is an online course aimed at large-scale participation and open (free) access via the internet. • They are similar to university courses, but do not tend to offer academic credit. • A number of web-based platforms (providers Aka initiatives) supported by top universities and colleges offer MOOCs in a wide range of subjects. 3
  • 4. 7. History and Development of MOOCs: The term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier. Before the Digital Age, distance learning appeared in the form of correspondence courses in the 1890s-1920s, and later radio and television broadcast of courses and early forms of e-learning. Typically fewer than five percent of the students would complete a course. The 2000s saw changes in online, or e-learning and distance education, with increasing online presence, open learning opportunities, and the development of MOOCs. The first MOOCs emerged from the open educational resources (OER) movement. 8. MOOCs at Global Level: Many universities scrambled to join in the "Next Big Thing", as did more established online education service providers such as Blackboard Inc, in what has been called a "stampede." Dozens of universities in Canada, Mexico, Europe and Asia have announced partnerships with the large American MOOC providers. 8.1 In USA: The larger non-profit organizations like the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the American Council on Education. University pioneers include Stanford, Harvard, MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, Caltech, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of California at Berkeley, and San Jose State University were started the MOOCs programmes and they were became more popularised in USA. In the fall of 2011, Stanford University launched three courses. The first of those courses was Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. The Enrolment reached 1, 60,000 students. The announcement was followed within weeks by the launch of two more MOOCs, Following the publicity and high enrolment numbers of these courses, Thrun started the Udacity and Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng launched Coursera. Coursera subsequently announced university partnerships with University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Stanford University and The University of Michigan. According to a Stanford University study of a more general group of students "active learners" – anybody who participated beyond just registering – found that 64% of high school active learners were male and 88% were male for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses and identified four types of students: auditors, who watched video throughout the course, but took few quizzes or exams; completers, who viewed most lectures and took part in most assessments; disengaged learners, who quickly dropped the course; and sampling learners, who might only occasionally watch lectures In January 2013, Udacity launched its first MOOCs-for-credit, in collaboration with San Jose State University. In May 2013 the company announced the first entirely MOOC-based master's degree, collaboration between Udacity, AT&T and the Georgia Institute of Technology, costing $7,000, a fraction of its normal tuition.Concerned about the commercialization of online education, in 2012, MIT created the not-for-profit MITx. The inaugural course, 6.002x, launched in March 2012. Harvard joined the group, renamed edX, that spring, and University of California, Berkeley joined in the summer. The initiative then added the University of Texas System, Wellesley College and Georgetown University. 4
  • 5. In September 2013, edX announced a partnership with Google to develop MOOC.org, a site for non-xConsortium groups to build and host courses. Google will work on the core platform development with edX partners. In addition, Google and edX will collaborate on research into how students learn and how technology can transform learning and teaching. MOOC.org will adopt Google's infrastructure.[48] The Chinese Tsinghua University MOOC platform XuetangX.com (launched Oct. 2013) uses the Open edX platform.[49] Before 2013, each MOOC tended to develop its own delivery platform. EdX in April 2013 joined with Stanford University, which previously had its own platform called Class2Go, to work on XBlock SDK, a joint open-source platform. It is available to the public under the Affero GPL open source license, which requires that all improvements to the platform be publicly posted and made available under the same license. Stanford Vice Provost John Mitchell said that the goal was to provide the "Linux of online learning." By November 2013, EdX offered 94 courses from 29 institutions around the world. During its first 13 months of operation (ending March 2013), Coursera offered about 325 courses, with 30% in the sciences, 28% in arts and humanities, 23% in information technology, 13% in business and 6% in mathematics. Udacity offered 26 courses. The number of courses offered has since increased dramatically: As of January 2016, Edx offers 820 courses, Coursera offers 1580 courses and Udacity offers more than 120 courses. According to Future Learn, the British Council's Understanding IELTS: Techniques for English Language Tests has an enrolment of over 440,000 students. 8.2 In France, Open Classrooms, which had been offering online tutorials in IT and programming languages since 1999, begins producing MOOCs in 2012. It now offers more than 1000 courses, focusing on technology and digital skills, mainly in French, but also in English and Spanish, produced either in house, or in partnership with universities and companies. 8.3 In the UK (2013), Physiopedia ran their first MOOC regarding Professional Ethics in collaboration with University of the Western Cape in South Africa. This was followed by a second course in 2014, Physiotherapy Management of Spinal Cord Injuries, which was accredited by the World Confederation of Physical Therapy and attracted approximately 4000 participants with a 40% completion rate. Physiopedia is the first provider of physiotherapy/physical therapy MOOCs, accessible to participants worldwide. 8.4 In China, Mexico and Brazil: From Brazil and Mexico. Fewer students enrolled from areas with more limited access to the internet, and students from the People's Republic of China may have been discouraged by Chinese government policies. 5
  • 6. Enrolment in MOOCs Programme at Global Level: (By October 2013) S.no. Country Percentage 1 India 8.8% 2 Brazil 5.1% 3 United Kingdom 4.4% 4 Spain 4.0% 5 Canada 3.6% 6 Australia 2.3% 7 Russia 2.2% 8 Rest of world 41.9% 9. MOOC Open Course Providers at Global: The following are the major MOOCs providers. 9.1 Coursera: It is a largest MOOC provider. Currently, it has 1.3 million Indians on its platform. The most popular provider of massive open online courses globally. Coursera has more than 10 million users in 890 courses from 117 institutions. Coursera believe in connecting people to a great education so that anyone around the world can learn without limits. Coursera is an education company that partners with the top universities and organizations in the world to offer courses online for anyone to take, for free. Their technology enables their partners to teach millions of students rather than hundreds. They envision a future where everyone has access to a world-class education that has so far been available to a select few. Classes offered on Coursera are designed to help you master the material. When you take one of their classes, you will watch lectures taught by world-class professors, learn at your own pace, test your knowledge, and reinforce concepts through interactive exercises. https://www.coursera.org/. 9.2 edX - Owned by MIT & Harvard University. It’s one the largest providers of MOOC Education internationally. Topics include biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, finance, electronics, engineering, food and nutrition, history, humanities, law, literature, maths, medicine, music, philosophy, physics, science, statistics and more. 9.3 Udemy: Udemy is an example of a site allows anyone to build or take online courses. Udemy’s site exclaims, “Our goal is to disrupt and democratize education by enabling anyone to learn from the world’s experts.” The New York Times reported that Udemy, “recently announced a new Faculty Project, in which award-winning professors from universities like Dartmouth, the University of Virginia and Northwestern offer free online courses. Its co-founder, Gagen Biyani, said the site has more than 100,000 students enrolled in its courses, including several, outside the Faculty Project, that charge fees. 6
  • 7. 9.4 ALISON: ALISON is a 2.5 million-strong, global online learning community, filled with free, high-quality resources to help you develop essential, certified workplace skills. The mission at ALISON is simple: to enable you, wherever you are in the world, to learn and get certified new skills – at your own pace – using their free, interactive multimedia. There are hundreds of free courses to choose from, such as business & enterprise, languages, personal development and IT. ALISON is for anyone taking their first step towards a new or better job. Their materials will help you to develop your creativity, confidence and competence for work, and to be as contented and productive as you can be in the world of work. See more at http://alison.com/ 9.5 Udacity: Offers proprietary “Nanodegree” programs for learning technology skills that matter by doing projects employer’s value, without leaving your current job. Udacity’s mission is to bring accessible, affordable, engaging, and highly effective higher education to the world. They believe that higher education is a basic human right, and seek to empower their students to advance their education and careers. Higher education is broken with increasingly higher costs for both students and our society at large. Education is no longer a one-time event but a lifelong experience. Education should be less passive listening (no long lectures) and more active doing. Education should empower students to succeed not just in school but in life. Udacity are reinventing education for the 21st century by bridging the gap between real-world skills, relevant education, and employment. Learn more at https://www.udacity.com/. According to The New York Times, 2012 became The Year of the MOOC as several well-financed providers, associated with top universities, emerged, including Coursera, Udacity, and edX. 9.6 Stanford Free Courses: From Quantum Mechanics to The Future of the Internet, Stanford offers a variety of free courses. Stanford’s – Introduction to Artificial Intelligence was highly successful. According to Pontydysgu.org, “160000 students from 190 countries signed up to Stanford’s Introduction to AI” course, with 23000 reportedly completing.” Check out Stanford’s Engineering Everywhere link. NovoEd: Founded by Stanford University professor Amin Saberi and Farnaz Ronaghi. Unlike any other MOOC provider, here students can collaborate in small teams with students around the world and submit assignments. 9.7 Harvard Open Courses: Under Open Learning Initiative (OLI), Harvard has launched a plethora of free courses to everyone around the world. Topics covered such as art, humanities, museum studies, business studies, management, computer science, engineering, mathematics languages, journalism, literature, speech, writing, pre-medical studies, science, environmental studies, social sciences and study skills. 7
  • 8. From Computer Science to Shakespeare, students may now get a free Harvard education. “Take a class for professional development, enrichment, and degree credit. Courses run in the fall, spring, or intensive January session. No application is required.” 9.8 MIT Open Courseware: Large scale on-line publication of MIT course materials. It includes many free courses available to anyone, anywhere. 9.9 Khan Academy: Learning from their micro lectures and practice exercise is quite engaging. Their motto is “A free, world-class Education for anyone, anywhere”. 9.10 ITunesU Free Courses: Apple’s free app “gives students access to all the materials for courses in a single place. Right in the app, they can play video or audio lectures. Read books and view presentations • UCLA Free Courses: Check out free courses such as their writing program that offers over 220 online writing courses each year. • Yale Free Courses: At Open Yale, the school offers “free and open access to a selection of introductory courses taught by distinguished teachers and scholars at Yale University. The aim of the project is to expand access to educational materials fo
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