Publish in



Please download to get full document.

View again

of 17
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
  AP European History: Unit 10.1   Totalitarianism: c. 1920-1940 Definition: government controls all aspects of the lives of the people. I.   Totalitarianism A.   Totalitarianism vs. conservative authoritarianism: a contrast 1.   Conservative authoritarianism : traditional form of anti-democratic government in Europe ( absolutism ) a.   e.g., Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, Metternich b.   Regimes sought to prevent major changes from undermining the existing social order ã   Most people went about their lives and were more concerned with local affairs that directly affected them rather than national affairs c.   Popular participation in government was forbidden or severely limited ã   This is a stark contrast to 20 th  century totalitarianism where people were expected to  participate  in the system and actively support the regime o   Stalin’s 5-Year Plans in Russia o   Hitler Youth in Germany d.   Limited in power and in objectives (usually sought the status quo) ã   Lacked modern technology and communications and could not control many aspects of their subjects’ lives. ã   Usually limited demands to taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance of the regime e.   Conservative authoritarianism revived after WWI, especially in less-developed eastern Europe and in Spain and Portugal ã   Only Czechoslovakia remained democratic. f.   Great Depression in the 1930s ended various levels of democracy in Austria, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Estonia, and Latvia Use space below for notes AP Euro Lecture Notes Page 2 Unit 10.1: Totalitarianism 󰂩 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀸 󰁈󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹󰁓󰁡󰁧󰁥󰀮󰁣󰁯󰁭 󰁁󰁬󰁬 󰁒󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁒󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁥󰁤   2.   Totalitarianism  a.   New technology made this possible: radio, automobile, telephone ã   Governments could wiretap telephone lines to spy on suspected dissenters. ã   Improved communication enabled regimes to coordinate quickly with local officials ã   Radio was a new tool used for propaganda (in addition to the traditional printed media) ã   Automobiles and trucks gave regimes increased mobility b.   Tools of totalitarianism: censorship, indoctrination, terror ã   Virtually no freedom of the press; the press became an organ of the government ã   Education was geared to creating loyal citizens of the state while demonizing potential enemies ã   Failure to support or comply with government policy often resulted in physical punishment, imprisonment or death B.   Totalitarian regimes were either fascist or communist (see table below) 1.   Communist in Russia (Soviet Union) 2.   Fascist in Italy and Germany Use space below for notes AP Euro Lecture Notes Page 3 Unit 10.1: Totalitarianism 󰂩 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀸 󰁈󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹󰁓󰁡󰁧󰁥󰀮󰁣󰁯󰁭 󰁁󰁬󰁬 󰁒󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁒󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁥󰁤   FASCISM COMMUNISM* Glorification of the state   World wide dictatorship of the proletariat (classless society) Single party; single ruler (dictator)   One party (communist) under the control of the Politburo. Dictatorship is not the final goal.   Condemns democracy: rival parties destroy unity. Man is unable to successfully govern collectively.   Condemns capitalism for exploiting workers (“haves” vs. “have nots”)   Supports the idea of capitalism & owning of private property so long as it serves the needs of the state   Government controls all means of production (industrial & agricultural). No private ownership.   Corporate State: captains of industry become state economic deputies   Economy is centralized under the communist party   Aggressive nationalism Spread of communism for the benefit of the world's working class (Comintern)   Advocates Social Darwinism (powerful states control weaker ones) Condemns imperialism: advocates a world without nationalism with the workers united   Believes desire for peace shows weakness of gov't Peace is the ultimate goal   Glorification of war (military sacrifice is glorified)   Violent revolution to bring about the dictatorship of the proletariat. War is not the end but merely the means.   Emphasizes the inequalities among humans Emphasizes the perfectibility of society. Mankind is basically good. * While Marxist views may appear more benevolent and utopian in theory, 20 th  century communism in reality became as brutal a system as fascism, perhaps more so considering the massive deaths in the USSR at the hands of the government Use space below for notes: AP Euro Lecture Notes Page 4 Unit 10.1: Totalitarianism 󰂩 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀸 󰁈󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹󰁓󰁡󰁧󰁥󰀮󰁣󰁯󰁭 󰁁󰁬󰁬 󰁒󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁒󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁥󰁤   II. Soviet Union (USSR) A.   Under Vladimir I. Lenin 1.   Marxist-Leninist  philosophy   a.   Theory of imperialism: imperialism is the highest form of capitalism as the search for new markets and raw materials feeds the bourgeois hunger for more profits   ã   Conquered peoples are ruthlessly exploited   b.   New type of party : cadre of educated professional revolutionaries to serve development of political class consciousness & guidance of the Dictatorship of Proletariat   ã   Lenin’s view stood in stark contrast to Marx who did not envision a totalitarian dictatorship from above (by elites) but rather from below (by the workers)   c.   Like Marx, Lenin sought a world-wide communist movement ã   1919, Comintern created (Third Communists International) o   Was to serve as the preliminary step of the International Republic of Soviets towards the world wide victory of Communism 2.   War Communism  a.   Purpose was to win the Russian Civil War (1918-1920) b.   First mass communist society in world history c.   Socialization (nationalization) of all means of production & central planning of the economy d.   In reality, the Bolsheviks destroyed the economy: mass starvation from crop failures, decrease in industrial output e.   Secret police ( Cheka ) liquidated about 250,000 opponents   3.   Kronstadt Rebellion  (1921) a.   Mutiny by previously pro-Bolshevik sailors in March at Kronstadt naval base had to be crushed with machine gun fire. b.   Caused by the economic disaster and social upheaval of the Russian Civil War. c.   Major cause for Lenin instituting the NEP
Related Search

Previous Document


Next Document

bab 2

We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks