?Which town am I?

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?Which town am I?. Officially declared a town on Valentines Day in 1896 …. ?Which town am I?. One of the richest towns in Australia at the beginning of the 20 th century … I am famous for wild weather, challenging terrain and a lunar landscape. ?Which town am I?. ?Which town am I?.
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?Which town am I? Officially declared a town on Valentines Day in 1896 … ?Which town am I?
  • One of the richest towns in Australia at the beginning of the 20th century …
  • I am famous for wild weather, challenging terrain and a lunar landscape
  • ?Which town am I? ?Which town am I?
  • This moss frog is found in my region and nowhere else in the world
  • Some species of plant in my region are found only here and in South America (Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water & Environment for all illustrations of fauna and flora) http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-6A2VYG?open
  • ?Which town am I? ?Which town am I?
  • Most of the area surrounding me is World Heritage Area (WHA)
  • I am rich in mineral resources and hydroelectric power
  • ?Which town am I? ?Which town am I? My map coordinates are: 42° 04’ 50” S (latitude) (Lines of latitude are also known as parallels: Why?) 145° 33’ 23” E (longitude) (Lines of longitude are also known as meridians) Want to refresh your memory about latitude and longitude? http://www.utas.edu.au/spatial/locations/spalatit.html ?Which town am I? ?Which town am I?
  • Let’s visit this location: Individually: Enter in your browser
  • <http://maps.google.com.au/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&ll=-42.187829,146.601563&spn=2.942752,4.927368&t=h&z=8&msid=218208937857547595145.00049e00fc0367df97847> And the town is … Queenstown, Tasmania! (Image of Mt Lyell ABT No.5 arriving at Queenstown between 1950-1959) http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn3422003
  • Queenstown: 42°S
  • Use the line draw tool to draw a line across Tasmania through the 42nd parallel S
  • Fly over the line using the arrow keys and name three other geographic features or towns that lie at approximately 42°S
  • Queenstown: Map Overview
  • What does the terrain look like along 42°S on the West Coast compared to the Central Plateau? The East Coast of Tasmania?
  • In your groups consider: What sort of conditions create this kind of terrain? (Think climate and geology)
  • Queenstown: Climate Were you right? http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=97034 Look at the bar and line graph and answer the following questions individually: Queenstown: Climate
  • What are the mean maximum and minimum temperatures for February: For July?
  • Which months have approximately 250mm rainfall?
  • What do you think the purple shading in the background of the graph represents?
  • Queenstown: Climate
  • Compare with other group members. Now have a look at this site as a group. Discuss: Does the data look different? Is it actually different? Does one represent the data better? Why? http://maps.bonzle.com/c/a?a=p&p=253&d=w&wnb=91927990&cmd=sp&c=1&x=145.55645&y=-42.0805&w=40000&mpsec=0
  • Individually, scroll down to the topographic map near the bottom of the page. Use the button just above the map to get the height, depth and position of Queenstown.
  • Queenstown: Topography
  • An altitude of 146m! Were you surprised? Why?
  • Now look at a topographic slice of Queenstown: http://maps.bonzle.com/c/a?a=p&p=253&d=ter&cmd=sp&c=1&x=145%2E55645&y=%2D42%2E0805&w=40000&mpsec=0
  • Queenstown: Topography
  • Draw a compass demonstrating the direction of each terrain slice.
  • What is the differential between the highest and lowest points in the North-South slice? East-West?
  • Use the buttons to view 20km and 50km slices.
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • As a class brainstorm:
  • How does the climate help explain the terrain?
  • What sort of geological/environmental processes are responsible for creating high mountains, deep valleys, and many lakes?
  • Queenstown: Geology Here are a couple of clues: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7YQ5vwaL98&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-h7G0h9Ip0&NR=1 (good music, shame about the spelling) Queenstown: Geology: Gondwanaland Queenstown: Gondwanaland and Geology
  • http://www.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/madagascar/images/gondwan.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.mobot.org/mobot/madagascar/image.asp%3Frelation%3Dfirstmap%26nextorder%3D5%26referringcategory%3Dwhy&h=377&w=565&sz=43&tbnid=roRqi_AnNuMDyM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bof%2BGondwanaland&zoom=1&q=map+of+Gondwanaland&usg=__xkLyPKGzxhqaSDBwHtwUng2Tvcw=&sa=X&ei=q-FsTYHvKoXovQPLhoHYBA&ved=0CCMQ9QEwAw
  • Bring up Gondwanaland on your browser …
  • The Gondwanaland map shows the orientation of the continents of the Southern Hemisphere before they separated. Imagine the forces involved in shuffling continents as they collided and separated!
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • Recall that rocks are designated Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary in order of decreasing age.
  • Western Tasmania consists of Palaeozoic formations: schists, slates, shales, quartzites, limestones and conglomerates. Ancient rocks exposed by the weather conditions.
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • Of particular interest are tubicolar sandstones – so called because they have annelid casts in them. (Worms!)
  • Examine the rocks on the table. Now you’ve watched the videos, see if you can also determine which are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Classify each rock by its number into the table on the board.
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • The high elevation of the West Coast was caused by tectonic activity. Erosion by water and glaciation etched deep valleys along fault lines or where rocks were weaker..
  • Quaternary glaciation created much of the topography you saw in the terrain slices. See how: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOGbOOaPHsw&feature=related
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • ‘Intrusions’ of molten ‘ore-bearing material’ led to ‘contact metamorphism’ … Try and guess what these terms mean now you’ve seen the animations.
  • What metal was contained in the ore-bearing material near Queenstown, which led to the creation of the town itself?
  • Queenstown: Geology
  • SUMMARY: High rainfall and glaciation caused erosion of towering mountain ranges created through tectonic activity, exposing ancient rocks and making accessible ore-bearing formations, including commercially valuable elements such as copper.
  • Assessment Option 1
  • In Pairs: Create an original animation or powerpoint of the West Coast. Detail rock formations and depict geological processes. Provide an oral or written narration to help explain what is happening over time. Include maps and graphs to depict and summarise information. (See criteria)
  • Remember this? Gondwanaland Gondwanaland
  • As a class: Identify the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle of Gondwanaland …
  • So that’s why Tasmania shares many species with the mainland, and also why some flora and fauna on the West Coast resemble those in temperate rainforests in Patagonia, South America
  • Queenstown: Flora and Fauna
  • Tasmania separated from mainland Australia at the end of the last Ice Age, around 10 000 years ago, or 8 000 BCE.
  • When it did so and became an island, species evolved independently, so many are native only to Tasmania.
  • Plus, Tasmania has geographic regions that vary greatly in terrain and climate and are separated by natural barriers, such as mountain ranges. What effect may this have on speciation?
  • Queenstown: Flora and Fauna
  • In your groups, list 10 animals native to the West Coast. You can include vertebrates or invertebrates … (Which category do birds belong to?)
  • How about 10 plants … Here’s a clue
  • Queenstown: Flora and Fauna
  • Pseudolycushaemorrhoidalis beetle on a Leatherwood flower!
  • Native plants include: Sassafrass, blackwood, myrtle, leatherwood, huon pine, button grass, tree ferns, etc. Have a look at this website and complete your list:
  • http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-6A2VYG?open(Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water & Environment for all illustrations of fauna and flora)
  • Queenstown: Fauna: Case study
  • In Pairs: Discover and record: What does a broad-toothed rat eat? What sort of habitat does it live in? What is its lifestyle and lifecycle – breeding, etc? (You will need to consult other sources, so choose reliable ones…How can you tell?) Broad-toothed rat
  • Queenstown: Fauna: case study
  • What databases will you initially search?
  • What search terms will you use?
  • Document your search so that you can see what worked and what didn’t; what/where you have already checked and where you need to go next, which sources are reliable, which not, which need further checking
  • Document your results (eg. tabulated under ‘habitat’, etc, creating new categories if needed)
  • What other sources of information may be able to help? (Libraries, scientific and conservation organisations, WIRES, etc)
  • Queenstown: Fauna: case study http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/AM01163.htm http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10510 www.tasfieldnats.org.au/TasNatArticles/TasNat128/TN128-DRIESSEN.pdf Stuck? Try these sites for starters for information about broad-toothed rats Queenstown: Flora and Fauna
  • As a class: Share what we have discovered. Itemise successful search terms and compare categories. Consider what effect differing forms of land use such as hunting, gathering, firestick farming, logging, mining or World Heritage Area status (WHA) may have on food, habitat and breeding for the broad-toothed rat.
  • SUMMARY: Western Tasmania has many unique native species which have evolved in, and depend upon, specific, isolated environments. WHA exist to conserve the variety and size of interdependent species populations
  • Assessment Option 2
  • In Pairs: Choose a species endemic to the West Coast. Describe its particular appearance, habitat, lifestyle, lifecycle, etc. Explain how this information is necessary to conserve it. Consider using using maps, graphs, tables and images to help summarise data. Present as a blog, poster or play. (See criteria)
  • Remember this (again)? Gondwanaland Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • As a class: Before Tasmania separated from the mainland, it was still a distinct region …
  • When was the region we now call Tasmania first occupied?
  • What was it called?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Archeological evidence suggests Trowener/Tasmania has been occupied for between 35-40 000 years
  • Ancient stone tools and artworks near Macquarie Harbour form part of that evidence
  • Tasmanian Aboriginal people became separated from their mainland cousins at the end of the last Ice Age when Tasmania became an island, around 8 000 BCE
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Due to this separation, Tasmanian Aboriginal people developed distinctive physical and cultural characteristics:
  • Physically they were characterised by ‘fuzzy hair’ and reddish-brown skin
  • Culturally, they discontinued the use of bone tools and consumption of scale fish. (Or did they …?)
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Over the subsequent 10 000 years until European migration, Aboriginal people dispersed throughout Tasmania and formed discrete groupings, occupying different geographic niches, developing different languages and different lifestyles, and utilising the land differently
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • In groups: Examine the following table and map of Tasmanian Aboriginal groupings.
  • Which group/s occupied the West Coast region?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Consider the source of this map and table: Lyndall RYAN (1996). The Aboriginal Tasmanians. 2nd ed. Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, NSW
  • What do you think: primary or secondary source? Why? How did they work it out?
  • Now look at another map: Is it similar/different?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Plomley, N.J.B. (1993). The Tasmanian Aborigines. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Because we lack many primary sources and there was a lot of variation in lifestyle between different groups, we need to triangulate information from as many different sources as possible to describe the life of West Coast Aboriginal Tasmanians
  • Much of what we ‘know’ comes from the following sources
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Plomley, N.J.B. (1993). The Tasmanian Aborigines. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania
  • Plomley, N.J.B. (1976). A word-list of the Tasmanian Aboriginal languages. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania
  • Robinson, G.A. (2008). Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian journal and papers of George Augustus Robinson 1829-1834. Ed. N. Plomley. Hobart: Quintus, University of Tasmania
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Where does Plomley get his information from?
  • As a class brainstorm: What other ‘voices’ would you like to hear to try to understand what life was like for Tasmanian Aborigines?
  • What sources can provide that voice?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Have a look at the website for the LiaPootah people http://www.tasmanianaboriginal.com.au/liapootah/liapootah.htm
  • Now look at this site http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6357
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • Note that ‘Toogee’ people are not included in Ryan’s table
  • Note that the National Parks document disputes the ‘empty’ space inland from the coast itself on the tribal maps we looked at before
  • In pairs: What other differences can you find?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • So when you read the following in pairs, remember it is based primarily on secondary sources. These in turn are based upon, and interpret, just two or three primary sources - principally the documents of 19th century Friendly Mission Leader George Augustus Robinson. Consider as you read:
  • Was it really like this?
  • What evidence are estimations/opinions based on?
  • What information is missing?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use POPULATION
  • 3-4 000 statewide, equating to a density of 1 individual per13-23kmsq on average
  • A higher density of 2 per1kmsq was possible on the West Coast. Why?
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • Domestic: Hearth group, 2-11 members: family grouping of monogamous couple and children, +/- other close relations
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • Social: Band, 40-50 members (depending on local food abundance): several hearth groups sharing a name and a geographic region of 500-750kmsq
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • All bands were exogamous: What does this mean?
  • Usually women joined their husband’s band, but the reverse also occurred
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • Political: Tribe, 250-700 members: consisting of affiliated bands within a geographic region.
  • Boundaries between neighbouring tribes were maintained more or less amicably or violently.
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • Eg. North West coast tribes had most contact with other tribes - both Tasmanian and mainland – and allegedly kidnapped women and children from other Tasmanian tribes to trade with mainlanders, and latterly European sealers
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use KINSHIP: domestic, social & political divisions
  • Tribes along the North West and West coast interacted regularly, as their migration routes overlapped and they had common ochre mining sites. (Following slides from Ryan, 1996, secondary source discussed previously)
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use SHELTER
  • Similar to other Tasmanian Aborigines, West Coasters lived a migratory lifestyle to exploit seasonal food sources. However, as local food sources were plentiful and the climate harsh, they built permanent dwellings from tea tree branches and bark and grasses (with the lifespan of a weatherboard house)
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use
  • These images of Aboriginal and European shelters are taken from the LiaPootah website. Have another look at the site, and record:
  • Who were the Palawa?
  • What foods did they eat?
  • How were these foods obtained?
  • Compare this with information from the National Parks site
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use FOODS
  • Foods included seals, penguins, shellfish and crayfish, wombats, wallabies, kangaroos, birds and their eggs, including muttonbirds (shearwaters)
  • Plants were used extensively for building shelter and equipment such as rafts, ropes, baskets and weapons. Various roots, berries and stems were also consumed. Look at your food, clothing and technology handout (handout 1): Can you work out some of the plants they ate? Explain your thinking
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use LIFESTYLE
  • Food sources were exploited through a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and firestick manipulation of vegetation, creating cleared areas to attact browsers such as wallabies
  • Hunting was carried out with implements such as throwing stones and rocks (preferably rounded), wooden spears, waddies (clubs), and snares
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use LIFESTYLE
  • A debate exists over whether Tasmanian Aboriginal peoples made fire, or permanently carried fire. Why carry fire?
  • Seasonal variations in availability of food such as muttonbirds created a pattern of regular migrations centred around the home base
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use LIFESTYLE
  • Ochre (clay and iron oxide) was dug from the ground using wooden chisels, then mixed with animal grease and rubbed into hair and onto skin. (What colour is iron oxide (rust)? What might this explain about observations of skin colour?)
  • Ochre mines therefore became meeting locations for different tribes and groups
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use LIFESTYLE
  • Skins were worn by both sexes
  • Men had ‘mop’ hairstyles, women had crew cuts, and both sexes performed ceremonial scarification (see Plomley, 1993, illustration next slide)
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Remember this? Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use DEBATE A: Groups 1 and 2
  • Women mined the ochre, dived for shellfish, gathered plant materials for food, manufactured items such as baskets and kangaroo-skin carrying bags, maintained dwellings and cared for children. Men posed.
  • Discuss this statement, using your current sources as well as the following primary and secondary source (Which is which? Why?):
  • Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use DEBATE A: Groups 1 and 2 Source 1: French naturalist Jacques Labillardiere (1755-1834) assayed the flora of the West Coast as part of a 5 year study of Australian flora. He viewed Tasmanian Aboriginal peoples as living an Eden-like existence, in equality and simplicity. Except: Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use DEBATE A: Groups 1 and 2 men should fulfill their “proper” role as providers by developing agricul
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